IN LATER chapters we will consider the rendering of large buildings, the decorative handling of architectural subjects, and the uses of tinted paper, colored pencils, etc., but before doing so it seems advisable in this chapter and the next to round out our discussion of architectural accessories by touching upon the representation of water, skies, clouds, people and vehicles, repeating for the purpose of emphasis a few of the suggestions already given and adding such others as seem essential.

Needless to say these accessories are of sufficient importance to deserve a more exhaustive treatment than this, but the student who is interested in obtaining additional information can find many special treatises devoted entirely to these and similar subjects. There are various publications, for instance, describing the different kinds of clouds, and numerous books on figure drawing and anatomy; the recent book on figure drawing by Mr. Bridge-man, "The Human Figure" by John H. Vander-poel, "Figure Drawing and Composition" by R. G. Hatton, as well as volumes on composition with chapters on the arrangement of groups of figures. The student is advised to consult books of this sort, and it seems hardly necessary to add that the knowledge thus acquired should be supplemen'ed by sketching all these things directly from nature or from the object, taking a course in life drawing (if this is possible) as a means of acquiring not only an understanding of the human figure but excellent training in drawing as well.

Now let us turn to a brief consideration of the representation of water, and suppose we liken it in appearance, for a moment, to window glass.

We have mentioned in a former chapter the complicated effect of glass, but if that offers difficulties to the student, so indeed does water, in fact, the latter is even harder to draw well, for whereas the former has the two important characteristics of transparency and power to reflect images of objects, water not only has these but adds to them a new peculiarity in that its surface is constantly changing in form, being smooth one moment, rippled the next, and disturbed a little later, perhaps, into large waves. Smooth water often gives as perfect a reflection as does a mirror, yet under slightly altered conditions the images are distorted or destroyed or the surface becomes like a transparent pane of glass, the bed or bottom below being plainly visible. Again such water sometimes seems opaciue and lifeless, the surface alone being visible. Such appearances and changes are due in part to three conditions: First, the depth, color and purity of the water; second, the point from which it is viewed, and lastly, the angle at which the rays of light reach its surface. Deep, pure water, for instance, is usually, if still, an almost perfect mirror, especially if we look along it rather than straight from above, but in a shallow or muddy stream or pool the reflected images are often merged or blended with the tone of the water itself and with that of the bottom showing through, distorted by refraction. If we look directly down upon water it seems far more transparent, as a rule, than when viewed in a more-nearly horizontal direction and this is true whether it is smooth or rather rough. It is true, too, that when the light rays reach the surface at some angles, reflections which otherwise exist wholly or partially disappear, and the effect of transparency is lost also, the surface becoming apparently opaque. This refers to calm water. Let the slightest breeze ruffle the surface and the complications are still greater. And each change in the force or direction of the wind causes a still different effect. These things all show the impossibility of giving definite rules as to how water should be rendered and make it plain that only personal observation and practice will bring any real proficiency in its treatment.

There are, however, a few suggestions that may be of help to the student, one of which is that the greatest care must be exercised to have the lines bounding any body of water correctly drawn, for unless this is done distortion may appear, the water seeming to slope or bend in an unnatural manner. It may be well to point out that in a large lake or sea where the farther shore is invisible because of distance the horizon line for the water will coincide with the eye level for any visible buildings. Occasionally, however, this line is "faked," up or down a bit, if a better composition can be obtained thereby. In smaller bodies the distant shore lines, unless viewed from a very high point, also appear practically horizontal. Once the outline is correct it is well to block in whatever definite reflections there may be, drawing them with the greatest care. If the water is smooth the reflection of an object will appear very much as the object itself would if suspended in an inverted position. If the water is rough the reflection will be more or less elongated and distorted, for the waves will act like a series of convex and concave mirrors, the amount of elongation depending on the size and shape of the waves. This is illustrated at "1," Figure 45, where at A the reflection practically duplicates the object, while at B the waves in the foreground show bits of reflection thus elongating the whole image. Such images are often slightly darker than the object reflected though the reverse is sometimes true, and they are usually quite definite near the object and more and more broken and interrupted by contrasting values as the distance from the object increases.

Some Typical Indications of Water.

Figure 45. Some Typical Indications of Water.