To further illustrate this principle of unity let us consider some simple objects found in everyday use. An ink-bottle, a turnip and a vase of roses might be arranged into a pleasing composition so far as variety of form and size and value are concerned, but unity would always be lacking in such a group for these objects are not sufficiently well related by use to ever become a satisfying single whole. It would be equally difficult to compose a coal scuttle, a hair brush and a cut glass pitcher, but a comparatively simple matter to form an excellent composition of a loaf of bread partly sliced, with knife, plate, etc., or of a garden trowel, flower pot and package of seeds. Fortunately nearly all objects of an architectural nature are so closely related that little difficulty is experienced in finding things which go well together, so the delineator of architecture has much less trouble in this respect than does the painter of still life. Unity in architectural work is often injured, however, because certain accessories are too important in relation to the architecture itself. It is not inappropriate to show an automobile at the curb before a Colonial doorway, but if it is indicated so large in size or made so conspicuous in any manner that it detracts from the doorway it then prevents a perfect unity in the sketch. It is mainly for this reason that in rendering architectural drawings such accessories are often left in what sometimes seems to the beginner an unfinished state. Trees are shown in a conventional and inconspicuous manner, clouds are often either omitted or only lightly indicated and shadows are simplified. This brings us to a discussion of the "Principle of Balance" which is so closely related to the principle of unity as to be really a part of it; in fact without balance there can be no unity, for by balance we mean, as the name implies, the equilibrium or restfulness that results from having all the parts of a composition so arranged that each receives just its correct share of attention. Every part of a picture has a certain attractive force which acts upon the eye and in proportion to its own power to attract it detracts from every other part. If we find our interest in a drawing divided between several parts, - if certain tones or lines seem too insistent or prominent, - we know that the composition is lacking in balance and likewise lacking in unity as well. It is impossible to give concise and definite rules for obtaining balance in drawings, mainly for the reason that the attractive force of each portion of a drawing depends on an infinite number of circumstances which are variable. A short, straight line drawn near the center of a clean sheet of paper has a power to catch and hold the eye. Let a figure "6" or some other curved line be drawn near the straight one and even though they are of equal size the curved line will prove the more powerful attraction of the two. In the same way a star-shaped form or a triangle has more strength to attract than a square or rectangle of like area. This power depends not entirely on shape, however, but on the value of light and dark as well. Draw two squares on paper, side by side, the one dark and the other light and if the paper is white the dark square will exert the strongest force but if the paper is black the white square will jump into prominence. Again, the attractive power of an object varies in proportion to its proximity to other objects. If, for example, a man is shown at small scale in a standing or sitting position near the center of the sheet he will receive considerable attention if by himself, but if surrounded by other objects he will seem much less noticeable. Then, too, a moving object or one which suggests motion, will be more prominent than a similar object in repose. Let a man be shown running and he is seen far more quickly than if he is at rest. Objects near the edges of the sheet or in the corners usually arrest the eye more quickly, too, than they would if near the middle of the paper.
These examples are sufficient to show the difficulty of attempting to give definite directions for obtaining good balance. The best suggestion we can offer is that the student make first of all, as soon as a drawing has been blocked out in its main proportions, a preliminary sketch such as we have described. A painter is able to make many corrections in his work as he progresses, until excellent balance in every part is gained, but in pencil sketching, where the nature of the medium and the limitation of time demand that the work be done very directly and with few changes, it is difficult to make well balanced drawings unless the artist or student has had considerable practice or unless preliminary studies are made. Almost invariably such studies save time and give results in the end that more than justify the labor spent on their preparation. Then, by way of additional precaution, as the final sketch progresses set it away from you at intervals or turn it upside down or on end or even reflect it in a mirror so as to see it in a reversed or changed position. When so viewed the balance should still be good, and if not the necessary adjustments should be made. If some part seems too prominent either tone it down or accent other parts until balance is restored.