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Sketching And Rendering In Pencil | by Arthur L. Guptill



Many readers of Pencil Points have suggested to us the need for a group of books dealing in a thoroughly practical and helpful way with subjects of interest to architects, draftsmen and students - a library embracing the varied interests that centre in the drafting room.

TitleSketching And Rendering In Pencil
AuthorArthur L. Guptill
PublisherThe Pencil Points Press. Inc
Year1922
Copyright1922, The Pencil Points Press. Inc
AmazonSketching And Rendering In Pencil
-Preface
AN ARTISTIC conception is susceptible of translation into graphic expression through a variety of media, but by a certain universality of custom, or perhaps more accurately of convenience, the familia...
-Foreword
IN VIEW of the popularity that the pencil has long enjoyed as a medium of artistic expression, it seems rather strange that so little has been written relating exclusively to it. For it is certainly t...
-Part I. Chapter I. First Considerations
UNDOUBTEDLY the ready availability and low cost of the pencil and materials needed for use in conjunction with it are partly responsible for its popularity among artists, while the ease with which it ...
-Part I. Chapter I. First Considerations. Continued
The architect's indebtedness to this little instrument which helps him to get work and to execute it is plain then, but if he feels a debt to this constant friend, so indeed should the architectural d...
-Chapter II. The Essential Equipment
THERE is nothing, perhaps, which so kindles the interest and enthusiasm of the student as to surround himself with the required drawing materials, while even the experienced man who is accustomed to t...
-Chapter III. Object Drawing In Outline
WHEN one studies drawing he usually does so because of his personal inclination, - hence when the necessary materials have been selected and prepared he is anxious for his first instruction, and if hi...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 2
Arranging The Working Space Now if one is to gain the greatest advantage from his practice, whether the subject is a geometric solid or a bit of still life, he must seek a place where he can work und...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 3
If one plans to work by artificial light it will be advisable to arrange it to take the place so far as is possible of the natural daylight. The lamp near the window in Figure 1 is an adjustable one o...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 4
We should perhaps try to make clear to the student just what is meant by truthfully expressing the leading characteristics of the subject. To do so takes us back to a consideration of what a drawing...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 5
So instead of working in this way one should go at the whole matter very methodically. First of all, as soon as the object is in place and the easel and chair are in position, mark the location of the...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 6
As soon as the main proportions have been properly established and the larger subdivisions blocked in and corrected in turn, we have completed the first stage of our work as illustrated in Sketch 2, F...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 7
Memory Drawings When one has acquired a fair amount of skill doing the types of work described above, let him try a few drawings of the same objects from memory, for the ability to draw from memory o...
-Object Drawing In Outline. Part 8
Figure 5. Illustrating Some of the Uses of Marginal Notes and Trial Sketches. The other sketches on Figures 4 and 5 explain themselves, and as experience will soon teach the student how to get a sa...
-Chapter IV. Object Drawing In Light And Shade
WE NOW come to the making of shaded drawings of objects in which we wish to represent the exact amount of light and shade found in the objects themselves. In this work no outline will appear for we a...
-Object Drawing In Light And Shade. Part 2
We have already mentioned that as a rule such surfaces as are receiving the brightest light (which means they are turned directly towards the source of light), will be the brightest. If we have an obj...
-Object Drawing In Light And Shade. Part 3
Now we have said little about the kind of stroke to be used for this work, for it is better that there be no definite line showing. The tone should be built up by going over and over it with a compara...
-Chapter V. Free-Hand Perspective
OBJECTS usually appear different in shape from what we know them to be. or, in other words, the appearance seems contrary to the facts which we know regarding these objects. We are aware, for instance...
-Free-Hand Perspective. Part 2
Figure 8. Illustrating Perspective Principles. Attention should be called to the fact that we seldom see half way around a sphere. Sketch 2 perhaps explains this more clearly. If X represents the...
-Free-Hand Perspective. Part 3
Now in order to convince yourself that these same facts are true of other objects, take a box or any form similar to the cube, and study it in various horizontal positions above and below the eye, kee...
-Free-Hand Perspective. Part 4
The Cylinder, Not Vertical Now that the drawing of the cube has given one a little knowledge of receding lines, it is well to go back to a consideration of the cylinder, only this time we will not pl...
-Free-Hand Perspective. Part 5
Concentric Circles Even in so brief a treatise on perspective it seems necessary for us to make some reference to concentric circles, as they must be frequently drawn and as they often cause trouble....
-Free-Hand Perspective. Part 6
The student may feel that these are unusual conditions; that few houses would be of just the proportion of two cubes, - and this is of course true. It is not a difficult matter, however, when a cube h...
-Chapter VI. Cast Drawing
WE NOW come to another important phase of our work - cast drawing, for as soon as the student has gained facility in object drawing, the next logical step is to turn to plaster casts for his subjects;...
-Cast Drawing. Continued
Figure 11. An Example of Cast Drawing in Light and Shade. It should be understood that the appearance of a cast will vary greatly under different lighting conditions, and at various times of the da...
-Chapter VII. Life Drawing
THERE seems to be a general desire on the part of art students to hurry on through all the preliminary work of practice strokes and tone building, and object drawing and cast drawing to the subject wh...
-Life Drawing. Part 2
Once the bones are well understood, attention must be directed to the muscles and to the flesh which rounds out the body. One should learn in just what manner the muscles are attached to the bones the...
-Life Drawing. Part 3
The amount of time given to the study of the nude figure will, of course, depend largely on the aim of the student, whether he is to take up illustration or portraiture or sculpture or some other form...
-Chapter VIII. Sketching Animals
AMONG artists there are many specialists; men who give attention to the representation of some one type of subject only. We have our portrait painters, for instance, and our landscape painters. There ...
-Sketching Animals. Continued
When the student has his paper ready and the subject selected, the method of working will be about the same as for drawing from the human figure. Of course the different kinds of animals differ more i...
-Part II. Chapter I. Architectural Considerations
WHEN the student has obtained a sound fundamental knowledge of the subjects treated in Part I, namely - Object Drawing in Outline, Object Drawing in Light and Shade, Free-hand Perspective, Cast Drawin...
-Part II. Chapter I. Architectural Considerations. Continued
Figure 12. Illustrating a Method of Focusing Attention on Different Parts of a Building. Now in making a drawing it is assumed that the artist is looking in some one fixed direction. He gazes at so...
-Chapter II. Starting The Work
THE student should determine before sharpening his pencils just what they are to be required to do, and should point them accordingly. Sharply-pointed pencils will answer very well if a drawing is to ...
-Starting The Work. Part 2
There are no definite rules regarding tone building but perhaps the simplest method is to draw parallel straight or slightly curved lines just touching one another or with slight spaces between. Fi...
-Starting The Work. Part 3
Contrasts There are various ways of obtaining contrasts and two of the most common are illustrated by Figure 19. A white spot against a black background always shows so plainly that the eye goes to i...
-Chapter III. Individual Style
STUDENTS of drawing often foolishly handicap themselves right at the start by attempting to produce sketches that show marked original-ity or individuality. Such students seem to be of the erroneous o...
-Individual Style. Continued
Pencil Sketch Of Durham Cathedral By Kenneth Conant. Warning should be given that there is a vast difference between the rough, scratchy sketches of beginners and the apparently carelessly made dra...
-Chapter IV. Methods And Lighting
AS WE are unable to fully and exactly reproduce by means of pencil drawings, all of nature's intricate form, her complicated light and shade, and her varied coloring, we are forced to adopt certain co...
-Methods And Lighting. Continued
Figure 21. Illustrating Different Methods of Indicating the Same Subject. Figure 22. The Upper Sketch Shows an Effect Mainly Gained by the Use of Values Representing the Tone of Various Building ...
-Chapter V. Composition And Drawing From Photographs
MANY draftsmen and students easily acquire the ability to satisfactorily represent small details of buildings like bricks and shingles and even such larger parts as doors and windows, but the skill to...
-Composition And Drawing From Photographs. Part 2
Some art students carry a view-finder of the kind first described with them constantly and gain a great deal of pleasure and useful knowledge of composition by studying different objects through its o...
-Composition And Drawing From Photographs. Part 3
When a selection has been decided upon and framed to a good proportion, fasten the finder to the photograph and then on very thin tracing paper with a soft pencil make a simple tracing, not in outline...
-Composition And Drawing From Photographs. Part 4
To further illustrate this principle of unity let us consider some simple objects found in everyday use. An ink-bottle, a turnip and a vase of roses might be arranged into a pleasing composition so fa...
-Composition And Drawing From Photographs. Part 5
Figure 26. Illustrating Some of the Principles of Composition in Examples of Various Character. These principles of unity and balance which we have described all too briefly are most important as t...
-Chapter VI. Graded Tones
CAREFUL observation and study of objects in nature, as well as those contrived by man, will reveal one fact of the greatest value to the student of drawing, and this is that although not a little of t...
-Graded Tones. Part 2
Balusters, columns, archways, round towers and all sorts of similar architectural objects and details require a certain amount of graded shading. At 12 and 13, Figure 27, a baluster and a capital ...
-Graded Tones. Part 3
Figure 28. Some Applications of Graded Tones. Figure 29. Graded Tones Applied to Larger Compositions. There is another use for graded tones which is of the greatest importance and this is to so ...
-Chapter VII. The Representation Of Small Buildings
WE HAVE already pointed out a few of the many advantages to be gained through practice in pencil sketching and rendering. It is our present purpose to further explain some of the reasons why a knowled...
-The Representation Of Small Buildings. Part 2
There is another important advantage which often comes from having skill in making sketches or renderings of small buildings, for it is true that such drawings are frequently the principal means by wh...
-The Representation Of Small Buildings. Part 3
First of all, it is wise when starting a perspective to decide where to stand in order to obtain the best view. Though this position varies with different buildings it is usually well to show much of ...
-Chapter VIII. The Representation Of Details
WE HAVE now reached a point in our discussion of sketching and rendering where it seems advisahle for us to give additional attention to methods of indicating brickwork, stonework, claphoarded and shi...
-The Representation Of Details. Part 2
Figure 33. The Representation of Cornices and Cornice Shadows. This one illustration is doubtless sufficient to show that the draftsman must work for a wholly different result in a sketch from that...
-The Representation Of Details. Part 3
Though we have so far spoken of reflected light mainly as it influences cornice tones, it should not he supposed that it has no effect on other values, for it has, though as a rule the horizontal plan...
-The Representation Of Details. Part 4
Figure 34. Some Roof Treatments, Suggesting Shingles, Slate, Thatch and Tile. Figure 35. Various Indications of Brickwork and Stonework. A little observation will answer such questions as these ...
-The Representation Of Details. Part 5
Now to get down to a few practical facts of value to the beginner. First of all, decide whether the glass is to be shown light or dark. This depends largely on the surrounding material. If the walls a...
-The Representation Of Details. Part 6
Figures 36 and 37 show a variety of suggestions for the treatment of windows. Figure 36 was drawn at exactly the same scale as here reproduced, hut Figure 37 was reduced from a larger drawing measurin...
-Chapter IX. Interiors And Furniture
THOUGH a large percentage of all perspectives and renderings made for architectural purposes show exteriors of buildings, the draftsman is, nevertheless, sometimes called upon to make drawings of inte...
-Interiors And Furniture. Part 2
Figure 38. A Sketchy Handling Appropriate to the Informality of the Subject. Figure 39. Interior Sketches Showing Doors and Windows. As a rule it is best for the beginner not to draw every littl...
-Interiors And Furniture. Part 3
Figure 40. Furniture Sketches of the Kind Frequently Used for Commercial Purposes. Note the Large Amount of Paper Surface Left Untouched. Figure 41. A Conventional Drapery Study Combining Free-Ha...
-Chapter X. Outdoor Sketching
IN THE last few chapters special attention has been given to the representation of minor portions of both exteriors and interiors of buildings, and it has been pointed out that these small details rea...
-Outdoor Sketching. Part 2
Figure 42. Some Methods of Suggesting Foliage. It is not our intention to give the impression that the representation of foliage offers no problem, as this is not the case, for to draw it well is, ...
-Outdoor Sketching. Part 3
Now as soon as the subject for a sketch is selected and the materials prepared, make yourself as comfortable as circumstances permit, in order to have your attention free for the task at hand. In this...
-Chapter XI. Accessories
IN LATER chapters we will consider the rendering of large buildings, the decorative handling of architectural subjects, and the uses of tinted paper, colored pencils, etc., but before doing so it seem...
-Accessories. Part 2
Figure 46. Clouds as Seen in Nature and as Used in Conjunction with Architecture. Another very important point is that in representing a large body of water account should be taken of the 'fact tha...
-Accessories. Part 3
Figure 46 shows a number of sketches from nature such as the student should make for purposes of study, and several others showing sky treatments applied to architectural subjects. We should perhaps r...
-Chapter XII. Decorative Treatment
WE HAVE mentioned in previous chapters that all pencil drawings are somewhat conventional in treatment, the objects being rendered more according to rule or precedent than by attempting to duplicate n...
-Decorative Treatment. Part 2
Figure 48. A Somewhat Decorative Handling of Architecture and Its Accessories. Many of these decorative renderings are done in pen-and-ink or wash or some medium other than pencil, but as in nearly...
-Decorative Treatment. Part 3
Figure 49. Some Sketches Done with Black and White Pencils on Dark Green Paper, the Highlights Being Sharpened with Chinese White Applied with a Brush. Now in order that the student who is accustom...
-Decorative Treatment. Part 4
Pencil Sketch By Otto F. Langmann, Old Houses, Watts Street, New York City. Pencil Study For A Mural Painting By Barry Faulkner. This brings us to another method of combining pencil and color, o...
-Chapter XIII. Large Buildings
IN THE preceding chapters the greater part of our space has been devoted to describing methods of sketching or rendering the small type of building such as the average student or draftsman usually des...
-Large Buildings. Part 2
Figure 51. Pencil Rendering of Proposed Building for Harper College, Wichita, Kansas. Edward Forsblom, Architect. Sketch by Hugh Ferriss. Madison Square Garden, New York. McKim, Mead & White, Arc...
-Large Buildings. Part 3
Pencil Rendering By Chester B. Price. S. W. Straus & Co. Build1nc, New York City Warren & Wetmore, Architects. Figure 53. Apartment Houses at 115 to 137 West Sixteenth Street, New York City. G. A...
-Large Buildings. Part 4
The admirable rendering by Hugh Ferriss of Bush House, London, England, on page 174, was done after the designs for the building had reached a definite stage and as the surroundings were well known it...
-Chapter XIV. Conclusion
IF ONE desires to learn to draw, let him draw and draw and draw. The author wishes that this message might remain fixed in the mind of every reader of these chapters, for even those who have had the p...
-Conclusion. Continued
Pencil Sketch By Otto F. Lancmann. A Bit Of Old New York. We should not go on without some mention of the man who earnestly desires to draw but whose efforts bring him little reward. Such a person ...









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previous page: Studio Light A Magazine 1923 | by Sara F. T. Price
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: The Elements Of Drawing & The Elements Of Perspective | By J. M. Dent & Sons