This is a collodion paper, manufactured by the New Jersey Aristotype Company, Bloomfield, N. J. With this paper you print very deep, or until the high lights are considerably tinted. The prints are then washed in about four changes of water to remove the free silver. The prints are then placed in the following toning bath:

Toning Bath

Water...................................................................60 oz.

Chloride of Gold.......................................................2 gr.

The toning bath is then made slightly alkaline. For olive black effects continue to tone until the high lights are clear, allowing the shadows to remain warm. For black and white effects extend the toning a little further, but be careful not to overtone or the result will be a blue or gray picture. Now wash the prints in two changes of water and tone in

Platinum Bath

Platinum Solution.....................................................2 drs.

Water...................................................................60 oz.

This bath should be made up two or three hours before it is required for use. Continue in this bath until the desired tone is reached and then transfer directly to a

Short Stop

Carbonate Potassium Saturated Solution..............................2 drs.

Water..................................................................64 oz.

Now wash prints slightly and transfer to

Fixing Bath.

Hypo, Sat. Solution..................................................... I oz.

Water...................................................................12 oz.

Wash thoroughly in running water for say one hour, and your prints are ready.

There are so many printing-out papers now on the market that it would be impracticable to give directions for printing and toning all of them* and as the various gelatine and collodion papers require the same or nearly the same treatment, it would simply be a repetition of what we have already said. We will therefore call the attention of the amateur to another class of printing-out papers known as Blue Prints.

*Progressive Lessons in Photography, Part III, describes all the Printing Papers on the market and how to work them.

Although this is the simplest paper to work it should not by any means be despised, as with a good landscape or marine negative very beautiful effects may be secured and if a good article is purchased the resulting prints are permanent.

No chemicals of any kind are used for toning these prints. The paper is usually a light green on the sensitized side and should be handled as above described. With this paper the printing should be done in direct sunlight, as the paper is not particularly sensitive and printing in the shade would take considerable time. Print until the high lights of the picture begin to appear somewhat muddy, then remove from the printing frame and place the print in a tray or bowl of water face downward and allow it to remain there until the white portions of the picture are quite clear. The prints should be in slowly running water about ten minutes and may then be taken out and laid face upward on a piece of glass or ferrotype plate until dry. The result will be a beautiful deep blue picture on a pure white ground.

Blue prints are improved by the addition of a liberal white margin around the negative. This can be effected as follows:

Take an 8 x 10 printing frame and in it place an 8 x 10 clear glass which has been thoroughly cleaned on both sides. Such a glass can be secured at any supply house, or some friend who uses 8 x 10 plates can doubtless furnish you with one or two old negatives from which the emulsion can be cleaned off by means of hot water and a nail brush. Place this glass in the printing frame and cut a piece of red express or black paper, 8 x 10 inches, that will just fit in the frame. Select the negative that you propose to print, examine it carefully and determine just what portion of it you wish to show in the finished print. A 4 x 5 negative will generally make a 3 3/4 x 4 1/2 print. Find the center of your black paper and cut in it an opening 3 3/4 x 4 1/2 inches. Place your 4 x 5 negative on the plain glass in the center of the printing frame in such a way that when the black matt is laid over it the portion of the negative which you wish to print will show through the opening. When you have placed your negative in the correct position it may be held there by two narrow strips of gum paper. Having placed your black paper over your negative you now lay a sheet of 8 x 10 blue print paper upon it. Put on the cover of the printing frame and expose in sunlight. It is evident that the light will only affect those portions of the paper which show through the opening in the black paper and the result will be a 3 3/4 x 4 1/2 blue paint in the center of an 8 x 10 sheet, and if the negative was a good one the result will be worthy of a frame. Blue prints are not suitable for portraits, or interiors or exteriors of houses and as before stated your work on this paper should be confined to marines and landscapes.

A great many formulas and processes have been suggested for toning or changing the color of a blue print to a dark brown or black but many of them produce unsatisfactory results and stain the whites in the high lights and we can only advise the following: Take a dampened blue print and float it printed side down on 2 per cent solution of nitrate of silver. This will cause the image to almost entirely disappear and the print should then be thoroughly washed for a few minutes in running water and then toned or developed in the following bath:

No. 1.

Neutral Oxalate of Potash... 1 lb. Distilled Water to........... 3 pints

No. 2.

Ferrous Sulphate.......... 1/4 lb.

Sulphuric Acid............ 10 drops

Distilled Water...........to 10 ounces

Of this take 1 1/2 ounces of No. 1, 1/4 ounce of No. 2, and about ten drops of a ten per cent solution of Bromide Potassium. Be sure and add No. 2 to No. 1, but do not pour No. 1 into No. 2, or you will spoil the solution. The image will now gradually turn black and when it has reached the desired color wash it again in running water for a few minutes and then put it into a bath composed of