books



previous page: The Sinclair Handbook Of Photography | by James A. Sinclair
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: The Fundamentals of Photography | by C. E. K. Mees

Modern Photography In Theory And Practice. Hand Book For The Amateur | by Henry G. Abbott



This volume has been printed for the convenience of amateur photographers. There are two kinds of amateurs, one that presses the button and allows the professional to do the rest and the other, the earnest student, who has ambition to become, in every sense of the word, a photographer. This volume was not prepared for the former, for he rarely, if ever, makes any progress, and in fact does not seek to do so. Many difficulties and obstacles are encountered by every amateur and this volume is intended to reduce these difficulties as much as possible, by giving advice and instruction, which, if followed carefully, will save the amateur's money and many perplexities and annoyances.

TitleModern Photography In Theory And Practice
AuthorBy Henry G. Abbott
PublisherGeo. K. Hazlitt & Company
Year1899
Copyright1898, Geo. K. Hazlitt & Company
AmazonModern photography in theory and practice: A hand book for the amateur
-Preface
This volume has been printed for the convenience of amateur photographers. There are two kinds of amateurs, one that presses the button and allows the professional to do the rest and the other, the ea...
-Chapter I
Cameras are divided into two general classes, snapshot or box cameras and tripod or professional cameras. It is true that the box camera may also be used in connection with the tripod and that all, or...
-Chapter II
We will endeavor to thorough explain the various kinds of cameras on the market. As we said before, box cameras are divided into two general types, those having a fixed focus and those having a bellow...
-Chapter II. Continued
Fig. 4. Salt Creek in April. Henry G. Mohr, Chicago. The front board of this camera can be moved up or down or to the right or left as occasion may require and is technically known as a double...
-Chapter III
Whether you develop your plates yourself, or have the work done for you by the professional, it is necessary to know something about plates and the chemical action of light and the more you know in th...
-Chapter III. Part 2
Manufacturers of plates usually number them according to their sensitiveness, although the number on a plate box is not always a guide to the quickness or slowness of the contents. A slow plate is usu...
-Chapter III. Part 3
We will take it for granted that our outfit consists of a Premo, Sr., 4 x 5 camera and three plate holders, for glass plates. As we said before, this camera represents a class and is very similar to m...
-Chapter IV
Let us now take a photograph together, in order that we may better understand our camera, its attachments, our plates and the value of our records. For convenience sake we will follow the entry in our...
-Chapter V
We have now made two exposures, or taken two pictures, one of a yacht and the other a wood scene with water for a foreground. It will not do to keep on recklessly exposing plates without knowing what ...
-Chapter VI
The dark room question is a serious one and you should not be in a hurry about building one until you lave a pretty thorough understanding of the requirements of the art. We never knew an amateur whos...
-Chapter VI. Continued
By consulting Fig. 20 you will get a good idea of the other side and end of the room. Facing the sink is a wide shelf or table, about two and a half feet from the floor, where you can sit down and dus...
-Chapter VII
We said there was a scientific method of determining just when to stop development. This method was the result of constant study and experiment on the part of an amateur photographer, Mr. Alfred Watki...
-Chapter VII. Part 2
Cramer's Pyro-Soda Developer No. 1. Pyrogallic Acid..................1 oz. Sulphite of Sodium (Crystals).1 drm. Dissolve the Sulphite of Sodium in 6 oz. Distilled Water and add Acetic Acid until the...
-Chapter VII. Part 3
To Develop Take No. 1. No. 2. Water. For Instantaneous Exposures......... .1 oz. 1 oz. 4 oz. For Portraits ..........................................
-Chapter VII. Part 4
The ordinary fixing bath consists of one part of hyposulphite of soda to four parts of water. There are various other fixing baths known as acid baths, alum baths, etc. Fixing baths should be kept fre...
-Chapter VIII
Even the professional, who has had years of experience, does not produce a perfect plate every time, and the amateur must not be discouraged if he meets with failures very often. The professional reso...
-Chapter VIII. Part 2
Uranium Intensifier No. 1. Nitrate of Uranium............15 grs. Distilled Water................ 4 oz. No. 2. Ferri-Cyanide of Potassium... 15 grs. Distilled Water................ 4 oz. For use m...
-Chapter VIII. Part 3
Yellow Negatives. This is occasioned by prolonged development, by a decomposed Pyro Solution or by an insufficient quantity of or decomposed sulphite of sodium, in the developer. Sometimes the yellow ...
-Chapter IX
When a negative has small transparent spots on it caused by dust on the plate or air bubbles in the devel-oper, they may be successfully treated by what is known as the spotting-out process. The negat...
-Chapter IX. Continued
Retouching is seldom practiced by amateur photographers and as a rule when they have work of this class they usually give it out to the professional. In fact, retouching is an art in itself and it is ...
-Chapter X
Having passed through the various stages and exposed, developed, fixed and washed our negative and remedied any slight imperfections in it, we are now ready to consider one of the most important stage...
-Toning Blue Label And Junior Aristo
Print about two shades darker than desired when finished. Flatten the prints as directed for collodion paper and then wash through six changes of clear water, handling the prints over each time, then ...
-Double Toning
Aristo platino paper should be printed plain, as a gen-eral thing. Print until the high lights are well tinted. Pay no attention to the shadows, no matter how much they bronze. Wash through six change...
-Sepia Tones On Platino
No. 1. To make sepia tones, print about two shades darker than desired when finished. Wash through two changes of clear water. Then place prints in a strong salt solution, two ounces of salt to a gall...
-Double Toning Troubles
Pink whites are caused by not having the gold bath alkaline enough. Yellow whites may come from prints not being toned far enough in the gold bath. Yellow whites may come from trying to wash prints in...
-Single Toning
Many photographers, thinking that the single toner is a combined bath, in which prints are fixed and toned at the same time, have condemned it without a trial. This is a mistake, as prints are toned f...
-Toning Bath
After washing tone in the following bath: Water.......................................................................32 oz. Single Toner................................................................
-Gold Toning Baths
In toning in the gold bath, it is important to watch several points. One is to see that the high lights and shadows are both toning equally. It is a good plan to look through the print by transmitted ...
-Platinum Toning Bath
The formula gives sixty ounces of water and three to five drams platinum solution. Of course, it depends on how many prints there are to tone. So the best formula to follow will be to place enough wat...
-Washing Prints
After all prints come from the hypo bath, it is necessary to handle them through at least two waters by hand, before putting them in running water or the washing box. By doing this you wash off the su...
-Kirkland's Lithium Paper
This is a glossy gelatine printing-out paper, which is extensively used both by amateurs and professionals. Print it quite dark. This paper, like most of the printing out varieties, may be toned eithe...
-Delta Matt
This is a collodion paper, manufactured by the New Jersey Aristotype Company, Bloomfield, N. J. With this paper you print very deep, or until the high lights are considerably tinted. The prints are th...
-Delta Matt. Continued
Hydrochloric Acid............................................ 1 dram Water.......................................................... 10 ounces and after allowing it to remain there a few minutes remo...
-Ferrogallic Paper
This paper gives a black print but is not so easily prepared as blue print paper. Paper similar to that for blue prints is secured and coated the same as blue prints but with the following solution: ...
-Uranium Paper
Select a good paper and float it for a minute on the surface of the following solution: Uranium Nitrate.......... ...................................................25grs. Distilled Water..............
-Bromide Paper
These papers are made in various qualities, as thin, thick and very thick and with various surfaces, as smooth, rough and very rough. The artistic results of the finished prints on bromide paper depen...
-Fixing Bath
Hyposulphite of Soda..........................................................8 ozs. Water..........................................................................64 ozs. After fixing thoroughly, t...
-Sepia Tones
To change bromide prints from blue-black to sepia tones they must first be thoroughly washed to free them from all traces of hypo or developer. Then tone them by rocking in a tray containing the follo...
-Metol Quinol
Water............................................................................. 10 ozs. Metol....................................................................... 7 grs. Sodium Sulphite, crysta...
-Clearing And Washing Prints
There should be at least three acid baths, consisting of one part muriatic acid to sixty parts of water and the acid should be chemically pure. The print is placed face downwards in the first bath for...
-Carbon Or Pigment Prints
Carbon prints are not made by the average amateur, on account of the somewhat tedious processes involved but those amateurs who have once mastered the process and noted the beautiful results are well ...
-Tissue
Each tissue added is to be three-eighths of an inch shorter than the one previously pasted in position. With a lead pencil number the tissue steps from 1 to 9. Cut up a piece of ordinary printing out ...
-Chapter XI
Ridiculous and seemingly impossible results are some-imes achieved by means of the camera and the manipu-ation of the subject or plate. Every amateur is doubt-ess familiar with the class of pictures w...
-Chapter XI. Continued
Fig. 37. By taking advantage of the well-known law that the nearer an object is to the lens the larger it appears, some very ridiculous effects may be produced by means of a short focus lens and p...
-Chapter XII
Conditions govern night as well as day photography, although the same rules do not apply in both cases. Halation and reflection are, however, prime factors in night photography and must under all cond...
-Chapter XIII
Stereoscopic photography does not seem to be popular with amateurs although it is the most perfect manner in which a scene can be reproduced. It has doubtless been unpopular solely on account of the e...
-Chapter XIII. Continued
If you are printing from a single plate made in a stereo-camera you will note that the view taken by the right hand lens is on the left hand side of the plate and vice versa. This being the case you w...
-Chapter XIV
In Chapter III the attention of the reader was called to the fact that light is made up of several colors, red, yellow, orange, green, blue, indigo and violet and that blue, indigo, violet and green r...
-Chapter XV
Flash light photography is extensively practiced by amateur photographers with varying success. The majority of these photographs are failures, owing to the fact that the person or group is left in to...
-Chapter XVI
The making of lantern slides and transparencies although a comparatively simple operation, requires care and more or less skill and experience in order to get good results. A lantern slide or transpar...
-Chapter XVII
Transparencies are treated in a similar manner to lantern slides. They may be made on any ordinary plate, or special plates are made for the purpose, having ground glass or opal backings. There is als...
-Chapter XVII. Part 2
12 ins., size of paper; 3 ins., size of image; 25 feet, distance from wall; 4, the proportion. 12 3 = 4; 25 X 4 = 100; 4 + 1 = 5; 5 X 5 = 25. 100 25 = 4, the focal length of lens. Enlarged bromi...
-Chapter XVII. Part 3
We will now consider the method of making bromide enlargements at night, using an inexpensive, home-made contrivance, not very handsome but fully as capable of good results as the best enlarging appar...
-Chapter XVIII
The last process, that of trimming and mounting the print, is a simple one and yet how often do we see an otherwise beautiful photograph handicapped by poor trimming and an unappropriate mount. One of...
-Chapter XIX
The early fathers of photography soon discovered, when they worked with glass plates, that if it was necessary to set the camera in a subdued light and point it towards a bright light, the outline sur...
-Chapter XX
The aim of all photographers, whether professional or amateur, is to make a negative which will produce a bright clear picture, (for with a poor negative this is impossible) and to attain this two thi...









TOP
previous page: The Sinclair Handbook Of Photography | by James A. Sinclair
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: The Fundamentals of Photography | by C. E. K. Mees