Figure No. 2. Lighting in an Ideal Operating Room.
On the other hand were we to place this high light on the temple, we would lose the roundness we are working for from another source. This time there would be strong contrast from the fact that the soft light would be lost on the shadow side of the face altogether. To get the high light on the temple, the subject would have to be turned further away from the side light, and when the subject had been turned away from the light far enough to shift this light to the temple, the light on the cheek will have entirely disappeared. Hence it will be seen that the proper place for our highest light will be between the center of the forehead and the temple and this will be over the eye, on the light side of the face. At the same time that this little soft light on the shadow cheek disappears, there will be another evil come up, and that is, the loss of the catch light in the shadow eye. This catch light is one of the most essential points in lighting a face, as it gives life and expression to the whole face. By losing these two points of light, the soft light on the cheek, and the catch light in the shadow eye, it will be seen at once that one side of the face will be without detail in the shadows, while the other will be strongly lighted without gradations from the high light to the next, producing a negative of strong contrast. We are well aware of the fact that some operators do not pay particular attention to this seemingly small thing of getting the catch light in the shadow eye. But if two negatives are made of the same subject, one showing the catch lights and the other with the face turned far enough away from the light to lose it, and then compare the two, we have no fear of losing our claim. The eye is the life of the face, and without enough light falling into it to produce a catch light, there cannot be produced that speaking likeness of the subject, that it should be the ambition of every operator to secure.
There is another thing that should be remembered, and that is, by shifting the position of all of these high lights, we begin to lose gradation. There is no other position for these different points of light, by which we can get the proper gradation from one high light to another. Notice how the forehead rounds away from the high light, and how the nose stands away from the face. This high light on the nose makes it appear closer to us, than any other part of the face. This is nature, and is an assistance in getting a good likeness of the subject. Notice the gradation from the nose across the light cheek. As the light leaves the nose and goes toward the ear, it decreases in strength, thus rounding out the cheek. The light on the upper lip tells us that that lip is more prominent than the under lip. The light on the chin shows that the chin is round. With lights placed as we see them in the illustration, we get an image that looks as though the hand could be put behind the head, or we could walk between the subject and the background. There is an atmospheric effect there that makes our figure stand out and away from all else in the picture.
Figure No. 2 is the same subject in exactly the same position as in No. 1. The change made here was to move the camera just ten feet from the side light, or the same distance as the subject. It is seen by doing this that a full front view is secured, and not a single high light has been changed on the face. Now remember, if we had left the camera in the original place, and turned the subject toward the camera until the front view was secured, instead of moving the camera around in front of the subject we would have what we spoke of above, flatness, for the reason that the head would be turned too far toward the side light, and thus place the high light in the center of the forehead, causing the little light on the shadow cheek to broaden too much. Try it and see if this is not correct. The curtains on both top and side light were not changed for making No. 2.
Figure No. 3. Lighting in an Ideal Operating Room.
Figure No. 4. Lighting in an Ideal Operating Room.
In Figure No. 3 the position of the subject was not changed from that given in No. 1. The camera was again moved, still further from the side light. This time we were about fifteen feet from the light, and viewing the opposite side of the head from that we started in to photograph, but it can readily be seen that the lighting is still beautifully delicate and soft, with mellow gradations from one light to another. While the camera has been changed so much, that there is an entirely different lighting and position of the face, yet not a point of light has been changed. Every high light is in its proper place, just the same as when the lesson was first begun. In this last position and lighting we have the photographic Rembrandt lighting and a three-quarter view of the face, and still the curtains have not been changed or the skylight, nor the side light, from what they were in the beginning. In fact, the only changes made were to move the camera and background. Figure 4 is a fine profile Rembrandt lighting, and the only changes made from the other positions, was to move the camera about twenty feet from the side light and the background in behind the subject. The points of light are yet unchanged. Every one are in the same place as when the face was first lighted. The subject has not been changed since it was first arranged. The idea at the start was to light the face for roundness, and when that had been accomplished, it was found that the lighting and the position was all right for all of the effects as explained.
Of course we would not claim nor expect anyone to believe for an instant that this mode of lighting could be carried out under all lights, and in all operating rooms, but it can be followed in any room where there is distance enough to move far enough away from the side light to get the different views of the subject's face.
The lens used will also have something to do with the matter. If a short focus lens is being used, of course a room with less width can be used than would be the case where a long focus lens was used.
We are not so narrow in our views as to claim that our way is the only way, feeling quite sure that there are other ways for making exquisite negatives beside our own. But if a soft, delicate negative with snappy high lights, but silky, rich shadows, and the halftones running through the face in perfect gradations are desired, we recommend that a trial be made of this method, for round lighting.
An Example of Half Shadow or Sarony Lighting.