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Photography | by Henry P. Maskell



In adding a volume on Photography to the Concise Knowledge Library, we have felt that we were dealing with a subject which can only be approached through the avenues of actual practice. This is true about photography, even from the historical point of view. In the beginning it was sponsored by the highest scientific authorities of the time, and leaders of science, from Faraday to Lord Rayleigh, have given of their best to bring it to its present state of perfection. And yet its fundamental processes have to be taken for granted. No chemist by taking thought could have evolved them; they were stumbled upon accidentally by empirics, and it has puzzled the scientific world ever since to explain them adequately

TitlePhotography
AuthorE. O. Hoppe, et al.
PublisherLondon Hutchinson & CO. Paternoster
Year1911
Copyright1911, London Hutchinson & CO. Paternoster
AmazonPhotography
-Preface
In adding a volume on Photography to the Concise Knowledge Library, we have felt that we were dealing with a subject which can only be approached through the avenues of actual practice. This is true a...
-Chapter I. Introductory And Historical
PHOTOGRAPHY, the most widely practised and most versatile of the pictorial arts, is also the youngest. Seventy years ago its very name was unknown, and only a few crude principles existed in the trans...
-Introductory And Historical. Part 2
We need not here enter into the details of the wet-plate process, which is still very frequently adopted for photomechanical work, and is described in a later chapter of this book. For the ordinary ph...
-Introductory And Historical. Part 3
The question is often asked, What is Photography? Ought it to be described either as an art or a science? Many will contend that, setting aside the gum-bichromate and oil processes (in which the photo...
-Chapter II. The Dark Room
Photography is perhaps unique among the sciences for the variety and many degrees of the votaries it attracts, from the simple amateur who is content to develop and print two or three dozen plates a y...
-Dark-Room Lamps
Every imaginable pattern of darkroom lamp has been placed on the market, and with some of these efficiency is not always commensurate with the price. We have developed many thousands of plates and fil...
-Chapter III. The Camera
For outdoor and landscape photography the type of camera, to be used on a stand and technically known as a Field Camera, should be of fairly light construction; but at the same time sufficiently str...
-Shutters
Instantaneous Shutters Fast plates and large diaphragms are the order of the day, and the range of work will be circumscribed indeed if exposures have always to be given by means of the lens cap. Suc...
-Chapter IV. The Optics Of Photography
The lens is the only part of a camera which a person of average mechanical skill cannot make for himself. A good carpenter can make the camera body, dark slides, and stand, and anybody with a taste fo...
-Formation Of Images
Any one of the lenses 1, 2, 3, Fig. 8, is able to form a reproduction ba or image of an object AB, Fig. 9, on the opposite side of the lens, provided that the object AB is more than a certain distance...
-Chapter V. The Optics Of Photography (Continued)
Principal Planes It was stated in the last chapter that for purposes of calculation a thick lens can be replaced by a single thin lens of negligible thickness. Now, no single point can be found at wh...
-The Optics Of Photography (Continued). Continued
Fig. 14. H = 100F2/12f ft. Now the distance of the farthest sharp plane from the lens when sharp focus is secured on a plane distant u feet can be shown to be uH/H-u approximately and the distance...
-Chapter VI. The Optics Of Photography (Continued)
A GOOD photographic lens, as was explained above, consists of several single lenses of varying refractive and dispersive powers. We must now consider why it is necessary to use several single lenses t...
-Correction Of The Defects Of A Single Lens
Chromatic Aberration is corrected by combining a negative lens, 2, Fig. I9a, with a positive lens, 1, the glass of the negative lens having greater dispersive power than the glass of the positive lens...
-Petzval Lens
Some special forms of lenses will now be considered. The Petzval portrait lens, Fig. 25, has been in use for sixty years, not only as a portrait lens, but also as a projection lens. It works at a larg...
-Chapter VII. On Selecting A Lens
In the preceding chapter some account has been given of the various types of lenses and their distinguishing characteristics, so that the reader is now in a position to decide on the lens he is going ...
-On Selecting A Lens. Continued
The lens for the photographer who has plenty of money to spend on his hobby is an anastigmat which will cover sharply at full aperture a much larger plate than that for which it is sold. As an example...
-Chapter VIII. Outdoor Photography: Focussing The Image
In whatever section he may afterwards specialise, the beginner should always pass through a course in landscape work. The incidental difficulties are few and arise in so regular a succession, that a r...
-Outdoor Photography: Focussing The Image. Part 2
Natural Clouds It is occasionally worth while to preserve the actual clouds in the landscape which we are photographing. A sky shade-shutter will give a much shorter exposure to the sky than to the f...
-Chapter IX. The Laws Of Pictorial Composition
ALTHOUGH we are concerned in this chapter entirely with what are generally spoken of as the laws of composition, we must warn the reader, at the very beginning, against the danger of overestimating ...
-The Laws Of Pictorial Composition. Part 2
Fig. 35. Fig. 36. Subtlety So the process is very simple: repeat, vary, contract, concentrate, and the thing is done - a work of art! Sad to say, it does not follow. If the picture has been thu...
-The Laws Of Pictorial Composition. Part 3
Far From The Madding Crowd. T. M. Weaver. There remains another argument, or, rather, it is the same one put in a more subtle way. It is this: that there are some things which the camera can do be...
-Chapter X. Outdoor Photography: Exposure
We are now ready to insert in the camera the dark slide (duly loaded with plates film side outwards), and to withdraw the shutter. Dark slides containing plates should be protected from the direct ray...
-Outdoor Photography: Exposure. Continued
Actinometer A simple actinometer for measuring the chemical intensity of light at a particular time may be devised as follows: Soak a piece of bromide paper of any good make in a 10 per cent. solutio...
-Chapter XI. Development Of The Negative
Some thirty years ago, when photography was not very widely understood of the common people, we were passing through the usual ordeal at a douane on the German frontier. One luckless tourist had among...
-Development Of The Negative. Part 2
Over-Exposure If a plate is suspected of being overexposed 10 drops of bromide should be added to each ounce of the developer before it is poured over the plate; and if the image flashes out quickly ...
-Development Of The Negative. Part 3
Hypo Eliminators To obviate the prolonged washing of the negative several preparations have been suggested. Peroxide of hydrogen in a very weak solution, 1 dr. to 10 oz. of water, is one of these, an...
-Development Of The Negative. Part 4
Pyrogallic Acid (C6H3(OH)3) may now be obtained in concentrated crystalline form, as well as in the snow-white needle flakes, an ounce of which required so enormous a bottle to contain them. It is the...
-Development Of The Negative. Part 5
A. Metol....................... 1/4 oz. Sodium Sulphite........2 1/2 Water .........25 ,, B. Sodium Carbonate . . . . . . 2 oz. Water..........20 Metol is generally preferable as an add...
-Chapter XII. Time Development
In our last chapter we stated that most of the advantages formerly attributed to development in the open dish were now proved to be illusory. For a clear understanding of the system which is taking it...
-Time Development. Continued
Fig. 42 represents the section of a correctly exposed plate, with short, medium, and long development. The difference in the lines A B c, is the shallowness or steepness of the contrast obtained by th...
-Chapter XIII. The Chemical Theory Of Exposure And Development
Not lightly have we approached the task of writing an account of the chemical changes involved during the exposure and subsequent development of the ordinary dry plate. At the very start we are baffle...
-The Chemical Theory Of Exposure And Development. Part 2
Development Of The Image It has been shown that it is necessary to formulate two theories of development, since we do not know whether the unchanged or the changed silver compounds on the plate are a...
-The Chemical Theory Of Exposure And Development. Part 3
1Thus, suppose a certain change requires 5 minutes for a completion at oC. At 100 it will proceed 2 100/10=1024 times as fast and be complete in about 3/10 seconds. 2The weight of matter i...
-The Chemical Theory Of Exposure And Development. Part 4
2 A solution of potassium oxalate is, nowadays, always employed in the developer. - Ed. This ferric hydrate (in a colloidal state), would adhere to the paper and produce red stains. Excess of HC1 pre...
-Chapter XIV. Orthochromatic Photography
WHEN the pioneers of photography began to turn their attention to landscape and decorative work they discovered a very serious defect in their productions as either records of facts or as interpretati...
-Orthochromatic Photography. Continued
The Yellow Screen For Landscape Even with an ordinary plate the yellow screen will give better renderings of landscape effects, such as clouds floating on a blue sky, autumn tints, sheaves of corn, e...
-Chapter XV. Indoor Photography
Interiors We may sum up the difficulties of this subject under two heads, viz. those of perspective and those of lighting. Only the case of the small interior is dealt with here. Churches and other l...
-Indoor Photography. Part 2
In photographing books in libraries, Herr Fassbinder adopts an ingenious device, which will save a great deal of trouble. The camera is fitted with the reversing mirror, generally adopted in the photo...
-Indoor Photography. Part 3
Duplicate Negatives The best method is to make a transparency by direct contact in the printing frame, either on a photo-mechanical plate or the slow lantern plates which may now be obtained in all s...
-Chapter XVI. Portraiture: Materials
An idea is current among many people that an extensive outfit is necessary for the production of really good portraits and also that the most perfect and most expensive apparatus should be used for th...
-Portraiture: Materials. Continued
This faulty drawing caused by the use of short-focus lenses is the reason why so many amateurs' portraits are unsuccessful. From what has been said it will be seen that it is desirable to have at leas...
-Chapter XVII. Lighting And Posing
The ordinary results obtained by the average professional worker might lead one to suppose that the possibilities both of lighting and posing were limited to a few stereotyped forms. As a matter of fa...
-Posing And Expression
After lighting, these two factors are most important, the one depending on the other. It is the duty of the portraitist to make a true and sincere picture of his sitter, and to do this he must avoid a...
-Chapter XVIII. Portraiture: General Remarks
The Hands Of the utmost importance is the treatment of the hands. The writer considers that they are almost of as great importance as the face itself; they are absolutely significant of the sitter, a...
-Portraiture: General Remarks. Continued
When we next pass a shop that has a display of photographs of actresses or self-advertising beauties in the windows, it will be worth while to make this very simple experiment: Let us gaze at the coll...
-Chapter XIX. Architectural Photography
If any apology were necessary for the introduction of this chapter we might find it in the words of Ruskin. He says: The greatest service which can at present be rendered to architecture is the caref...
-Architectural Photography. Continued
For general use a good circular spirit-level, accurately screwed on the top of the body of the camera, that is, the frame which carries the reversing back, is all that is required in this direction....
-Telephotography Of Details
There is a great deal of beautiful sculpture, both of figures and foliage, in the doorways (especially in the tympana and archivolts) of many cathedrals and churches, and this can undoubtedly be best ...
-Chapter XX. Architectural Interiors
Composition Of View Only the briefest suggestions can be given as to the general arrangement of interior views on the focussing-screen, as so much will depend upon the subject; but there are a few ru...
-Architectural Interiors. Part 2
A little experience, however, will soon enable a careful worker to judge with a fair amount of certainty what exposure should be given, particularly when notes of previous work have been kept, and are...
-Architectural Interiors. Part 3
For most exterior photography backed plates are sufficiently halation-proof, although, of course, there is no objection, except the extra cost, to using the substratum plate for outdoor subjects also....
-Chapter XXI. Defects In The Negative And Their Remedy
Pinholes The annoying small transparent spots and microscopic holes, often found in the negative, are generally to be ascribed to dust on the plate at the time of exposure. Plates should never be kep...
-Defects In The Negative And Their Remedy. Part 2
A. B. C. Potassium Bichromate . 5 gr 10 gr. 10 gr. Hydrochloric Acid (sp. 1.160) 1 min. 5 min. 20 min. Water...... 1 o...
-Defects In The Negative And Their Remedy. Part 3
Methylated Spirit...... . 5 oz. Water.......... 1 Glycerine......... 1 ,, when the new plate is introduced, the whole is squeegeed once more, and the temporary support may be drawn away. En...
-Chapter XXII. Gelatino-Chloride Printing-Out Paper
ALTHOUGH this paper (commonly known to dealers as P.O.P.) is far from easy to manage in a way that will lead to a high standard of success, it is used by the great majority of amateurs. The advantages...
-Gelatino-Chloride Printing-Out Paper. Part 2
For this kind of vignetter direct sunlight must be avoided, and the frame shifted several times during printing, or slung by two loops of string from above, so that it will swing to and fro. Vignettin...
-Gelatino-Chloride Printing-Out Paper. Part 3
Fixing The fixing-bath for P.O.P. should not be so strong as for negatives; three ounces of hypo to each pint of water is sufficient for most papers. A small quantity of ammonia facilitates not only ...
-Chapter XXIII. Collodion, Albumen, And Other Silver Papers
Collodio-Chloride Papers A collodion printing-out paper was introduced as early as 1865, by Mr. G. Wharton Smith, but gradually fell into desuetude, partly owing to difficulties of manufacture, partl...
-Collodion, Albumen, And Other Silver Papers. Continued
Toning Albumen papers need not be printed quite so deeply as gelatine papers; the loss in the toning bath is not so great. The paper for prints from a given negative should always be cut the same way...
-Chapter XXIV. Platinotype
No photographic operations can be termed easy in the sense that they allow much margin for careless working. Some, however, are simpler than others, and amongst these must be reckoned the platinum pro...
-Platinotype. Continued
The ordinary developer for the cold bath is: Potassium Oxalate.......1 oz. Potassium Phosphate ..... 1/2 Water......... 10 Dissolve in hot water and allow to cool before using. Or ...
-Chapter XXV. Bromide And Gaslight Papers
ALL the papers described hitherto have been of a kind needing daylight, or an electric light of high actinic value, to produce satisfactory results; the image also becomes fully visible and complete d...
-Bromide And Gaslight Papers. Continued
Printed on Ilford P.M.S Bromide Paper. Belitski's Reducer If the ferric salt can be conveniently obtained, this reducer surpasses all others for bromide prints. No stains are likely to result from...
-Chapter XXVI. The Carbon Process
When a bichromate salt is mixed with an organic substance soluble in water, like gelatine, the latter has a tendency to absorb oxygen from the former, and also to become insoluble; this action is enor...
-The Carbon Process. Part 2
At the proper time the print is placed once more in water heated to a temperature of 100 to 1100 Fahr., which will soften the gelatine. As soon as the coloured gelatine begins to ooze out at the ...
-The Carbon Process. Part 3
Ozotype This is a variation of the carbon process invented by Mr. T. Manly, and is founded on the property which an image on a bichromated surface has of inducing insolubility in gelatine when presse...
-Chapter XXVII. The Gum-Bichromate Process
QUOT homines tot sententiae is apparently the motto of all who adopt and recommend this very beautiful process. It is almost outside the range of ordinary photography, beyond the fact that it commen...
-Indian Red Or Venetian Red, Medium Cadmium Yellow, Indigo, Or Prussian Blue
In our colour scheme we must avoid too vivid a colouring, or the result, in combination with the photographic sharpness of detail in our negative, will be nothing but a chromo. The result desired shou...
-Chapter XXVIII. Oil Processes
Oil and water will never agree; they repel each other. Consequently, if a sheet of paper or a glass plate is coated with a bichromated gelatine, exposed under a negative and then soaked until the unch...
-Oil Processes. Continued
Some photographers with a talent for oil-painting use various colours on the same print, and find that they are able to manipulate the film with ordinary brushes. Husband's Papyrotint This is a modi...
-Chapter XXIX. Miscellaneous Printing Processes. Cyanotype Or Blue Prints
A. Ferric Ammonium Citrate (green) . . . . 1 oz. Water........ . 4 ,, B. Potassium Ferricyanide (Red Prussiate) . . . 160 gr. Water......... 4 oz. Or, if the brown citrate is used, substitute : A. ...
-Postcards
A number of the formulas given in various parts of this work may be applied to the home preparation of picture postcards. Under this heading we supply one or two methods for utilising in photography t...
-Photo Sculptures
Take: Sheet Gelatine........5 oz. White Sugar........2 ,, Water . ........14 Soak the gelatine in the water till soft, add the sugar and apply heat sufficient to dissolve, stirring frequen...
-Chapter XXX. Hand Cameras
BEFORE us, as we write, is a dog-eared, time-stained little volume. It is a catalogue of photographic goods for 1885 - just twenty-six years ago. We search in vain for particulars of hand cameras; the...
-The Hand And Stand Camera
A few years ago the field camera and the hand camera were two distinct types, with clear demarcations. But the Sanderson on the one hand, and the better class of Kodaks on the other, have led the way ...
-Snapshot Cameras
Do not despise the Bullseye, Scout, and cheaper magazine patterns, such as the Klito, Briton, Empire, Maxim, Rover, etc., with which the market has been flooded in the past. Even if we d...
-Chapter XXXI. Reflex Cameras
THE ordinary hand camera has this very serious disadvantage, that the actual image, which is about to be imprinted on the sensitive plate, cannot be seen by the operator. He is obliged to take it for ...
-Reflex Cameras. Part 2
The Shutter Diaphragm shutters, which for every other purpose are preferable, scarcely enter into competition with the focal-plane shutter for instantaneous work at high speed. With no other back s...
-Chapter XXXII. Stereography (Stereoscopic Photography)
When we look at an object or scene in the ordinary way, with both eyes, we obtain what seems to be a single impression of it; this, however, is really a combination of two dissimilar images formed by ...
-Stereography (Stereoscopic Photography). Part 2
Fig. 59. Selection Of Subject With the exception of copying from a plane surface, practically all ordinary subjects for photography are within the scope of the stereographer. Landscape, seascape, ...
-Stereography (Stereoscopic Photography). Part 3
Floss. A. W. Lester. Trimming may be done by the aid of glass trimming gauges, but better by means of a 5 in. trimming board with pivoted shear-blade, or a small Merrett trimming-desk. Both print...
-Chapter XXXIII. Enlarging
Of late years, the fashion in cameras for outdoor work has been in the direction of a smaller and smaller plate each season. Once upon a time, whole plate at least was de rigueur, if a man wished to p...
-Enlarging. Part 2
Now we come to the crucial point in daylight enlarging - time of exposure. Fixed tables are useless as a guide. We must create a standard for our own lens with the actinometer. A test strip of bromide...
-Enlarging. Part 3
Clouds These it is preferable to print in before the main picture, giving a very short exposure, probably less than a quarter the usual time, and protecting the site of the landscape with a piece of ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Lantern Slides
How old the magic lantern is, no one knows! The Egyptians had something corresponding to it, although the illuminant was sunlight introduced into the darkness of the temples for projection purposes th...
-Lantern Slides. Continued
Toning The toning baths for bromide papers may, as a rule, be used also for lantern slides. A good platinum formula, which will not necessarily be suitable for gaslight slides, is: Platinum Chloride...
-Chapter XXXV. Photo-Micrography
A VERY awkward word is this, and one which somehow sticks in the throat of its user in a most disagreeable manner. Why not Micro-photography? Sad to say, the latter term has already been annexed by th...
-Photo-Micrography. Part 2
Source Of Light Oil lamps are rather to be discouraged, except for low magnifications; the intensity of light is often variable, exposure is very long, and another objection is the danger of greasy f...
-Chapter XXXVI. The Pinhole Camera
JUST as nature sometimes indulges in a reversion to the primitive type, so art finds renewed vitality by a return to first principles. And so photography, which is neither nature nor art, but a hybrid...
-The Pinhole Camera. Continued
The time usually allowed for a lens working at f/8 must be multiplied by the figures opposite the distance given. No. of Needle. Distance of Plate from Pinhole. 3 in.. 4 ...
-Chapter XXXVII. The Wet-Plate Process
Had this book been produced ten or twelve years ago, we might have omitted all detailed description of the wet-plate process as almost obsolete; the introduction of the excellent Mawson process plate ...
-The Wet-Plate Process. Continued
To test the amount of silver nitrate in solution take, say, half an ounce, and precipitate by adding excess of hydrochloric acid. Filter off, dry the filter paper, and weigh the amount of chloride. Mu...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Emulsions For Dry Plates And Films
WHETHER it is feasible for the photographer, amateur or professional, to prepare his own dry plates is a question hardly worth discussing. The processes are attended with precariousness and intricacy ...
-Emulsions For Dry Plates And Films. Continued
Coating The Plates Pour a pool of emulsion in the centre of the plate, and smooth over with a glass rod. Or, if the glass is laid on a scrupulously level surface, a smooth film will distribute itself...
-Chapter XXXIX. Photography In Natural Colours
The Beginnings It is an interesting fact that some of the first recorded experiments in photography were directed to obtaining results in natural colours. More than fifty years before photography, as...
-Photography In Natural Colours. Part 2
Thus, although Du Hauron actively continued his experiments, he failed to produce any satisfactory results, and for nearly twenty years from the publication of his treatise the practicability of his m...
-Colour Photographs On Paper
The subtractive method is also applicable to the production of colour photographs on paper, and many processes have been devised by which this can be successfully accomplished. Ducos du Hauron suggest...
-The Screen-Plate Processes
Excellent as are the results obtainable by the indirect or triple-negative processes already described, no method which involves so many operations can be regarded as ideal in its simplicity; and alth...
-The Screen-Plate Processes. Continued
The Omnicolore Plate The Omnicolore plate, though not yet actively marketed in this country, possesses a special interest as the actual invention of the veteran pioneer of colour photography, Louis D...
-The Lippmann Process
Though we cannot here attempt to describe every process of colour photography hitherto invented, mention must be made of the Lippmann process, which, though one of the least practical for everyday pur...
-Chapter XL. Three-Colour Negatives
ALTHOUGH the results of the screen processes are often of exceeding beauty, and are in some ways far in advance of any other method of automatically recording the colours of nature, they have not hith...
-Three-Colour Negatives. Continued
By the way, the student may be interested in knowing that Herr Stenger has worked out the relative exposures with ordinary non-colour-sensitised plates, using, of course, the proper filters. They are,...
-Chapter XLI. The Lippmann Process In Practice
In the present state of the screen colour process, it is hardly advisable for us to give practical directions. Improvements are introduced almost daily, and the directions issued by the manufacturers ...
-Chapter XLII. The Colour Salt
If we trace back the origin of almost any great discovery or invention, we find that it was heralded by a whole series of dreamers of dreams. With the dream came the irresistible impulse to set to w...
-Gelatino-Chloride Emulsions
We have not advanced very far on the road since the death of Mr. Carey Lea, but a renewed interest in the matter has arisen with the introduction of chloride of silver developing emulsions for plates ...
-Chapter XLIII. Animated Photography
We have already commented upon the difficulties of the instantaneous shutter as a means of representing rapidly moving objects, in that the results do not usually convey more than the idea of suddenly...
-Animated Photography. Part 2
The Film The length of film may be anything from 80 to 500 ft. In width it is about 1 3/8 in., taking pictures each 1 x 5/8 in., and about 16 pictures on each foot of film. At the usual rate of expo...
-Animated Photography. Part 3
The Opening For The Amateur In this country alone there are no less than 5,000 cinematograph theatres, besides travelling entertainers and educational establishments where the moving film has been ad...
-Chapter XLIV. Photo-Engraving, Collotype, Etc
ALTHOUGH some of the methods of preparing photo transfers for lithography and zincography were known sixty years ago, it is only within the last quarter of a century that photography has gained accept...
-Photo-Engraving, Collotype, Etc. Part 2
We have stated that the screens are ruled with varying degrees of fineness. Fifty lines to the inch is not too coarse for the daily newspaper tossed through the press at lightning speed, though some o...
-Photo-Engraving, Collotype, Etc. Part 3
Now, the carbon is transferred direct on to the copper plate and developed in the usual manner. All the soluble gelatine is thoroughly removed by a final washing in warm water, and the plate, with the...
-Chapter XLV. Retouching
WAS there ever a time when the use of pencil or knife on the photographic negative was not protested against as bad taste and bad art? We cannot recollect any such epoch. The retoucher has always been...
-Retouching. Continued
As to manner of working with the pencil, let each man adopt the way that suits him best. Some adhere to cross-hatchings, after the manner of line etchers, others make little dots and short marks, whil...
-Chapter XLVI. Photography By The X-Rays
We do not feel called upon in this brief chapter to indulge in a philosophical treatise on the nature of the X-rays, nor even to describe very fully the apparatus by which they are produced. The detai...
-Photography By The X-Rays. Continued
Testing The Presence Of The Rays Presumably the electrical connections will be superintended by a practical electrician. There ought to be a considerable distance between the coil and the tube, and t...
-Chemicals In General Use In Photography
(For Developing Agents, see Chapter XI (Development Of The Negative)) The figures following the chemical symbol show the molecular weight. Acetic Acid, C2H4O2, 60 A colourless liquid with strong vi...
-Chemicals In General Use In Photography. Part 2
Borax Borax, see Sodium Borate. Calcium Carbonate, CaCO3, 100 Occurs in nature as common chalk, but for photographic purposes is precipitated artificially. It is used principally for neutralising c...
-Chemicals In General Use In Photography. Part 3
Magnesium, Mg, 24 A silvery white metal, commercially obtainable in the form of wire, ribbon, or powder. Used in measured quantities for flashlight, as it ignites readily and gives an extremely actin...
-Chemicals In General Use In Photography. Part 4
Silver Chloride, AgCl, 143.5 A white insoluble salt, prepared in a similar manner to the bromide, by direct admixture of nitrate of silver with one of the soluble chloride salts. Soluble in ammonia, ...
-Miscellaneous Notes And Formulae
Panoramic Cameras There have been several inventions from time to time with the object of taking on a single plate a picture of much wider angle than can be included by the lens. Some, like Damoiseau...
-Miscellaneous Notes And Formulae. Continued
Caramel . . . . . . . . . 2 oz. Gum solution . . . . . . . 1 ,, Burnt Sienna . . . . . . . 1 to 2 oz. Methylated Spirit . . . . . . . 2 oz. A little golden syrup is occasionally added. Grind toget...









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