Circles. A glance now at what has been said under this head, considering how many curved lines then are in the drawing it will naturally suggest itself, that a thorough knowledge of bow those curved lines are affected by the laws of perspective must be of great importance to the photographer, for it hat been explained how a circle, such as the mouth of a drinking-cup, or that of a lens-tube, when held in front, by simply turning it gradually away, the circle will be seen to as sume an oval,and pass through all the elliptical forms until the brim be comes a straight line in appearance.
Thus it is evident that faces which are naturally too round, by being more or lees turned away from the camera, may partake more of the oval. It is surprising how much can sometimes be done by attention to this rule, not only affecting the face as a whole, but when applied to in
80. Any good photographic artist will be found to have his ideal, just at any good painter or sculptor - an ideal towards which he is striving, and from which he is always tot. He wishes to interpret the inner truth of nature; the impossible tempts him. He points bis camera, like Giotto's towe\r, towards the infinite. And no one knows batter than he that he cannot rely upon his instruments, that cameras and chemicals are but means of growth; that for all finer results he must depend upon himself. - Charles AkEra.
In lieu of a note from a wiser pen, permit an anecdote here illustrating this last point. A lady with a cost in her eye applied to an artist of fame for a portrait. He chose a profile view of her face, of course.Upon being remonstrated with by her, he politely answered, like half of a rubber ball, until the distance is brought almost a line with the foreground. The difference in definition scems correct, but the distance appears wrong though perhaps often true to nature.
"Well, madam, to tell you the truth, there is a shyness about your expression that is as difficult in art as it is beautiful in nature." And he was perfectly true to his artist-nature in trying to overcome this "shyness ' the best way he could. Take a lesson from this. -
Edward I. Wilson. 32.Without any reference to the opinions than, and without any chance of partiality in your, own there is one test by which you can determine the rate of your real progress.
Examine, of renewed industry. how far you have enlarged your faculty admiration.Consider how much more youcan see to reverence in the work of masters, and dividual features of it. For instance, a mouth that droops at the sides: by selecting some pose that calls for inclining the head slightly forward, as in reading, the lines of the mouth will assume a more pleasing form. Lineal perspective, then, as has been said and illustrated, is that part of drawing which is produced by the means of lines only.
32. Aerial perspective is used to designate the changes made in the appearance of objects by the interposition of the atmosphere. By the application of this principle in art, we are enabled to give our drawings the space and retiring character of nature. It is agreeable to view distant prospects, yet objects require a certain definition to lead the imagination without perplexing and troubling the mind. Neither are we pleased by sudden jumps from the foreground to the extreme distance. More delight is given to the eye by being carried over a gradual diminution of many intervening objects, or in searching for outlets through screens of intervening trees or clumps of buildings, or a mass of accessories. If you observe these things, your understanding of them is sure to grow.
33. In thus producing the effect of distance, the atmosphere helps us. Yet the mind requires a certain variety to hold it in amazement, as well as a certain appearance of substance to give a reality to the scene. But if the atmosphere is deprived of the means of refraction by reason of its clearness, a false representation is produced, the effect of which is that objects appear much nearer than they are in reality, and the eye is deprived of the gratification of viewing the outlines of objects through a variety of strengths. This effect may be noticed in portraiture, to a small degree, when a lens of too short focus is used. In out-door work, it is produced by using a very wide-angle lens. The whole scene appears to be produced on a concave surface and the sides stretched and pulled how much more to love in the work of nature. This is the only constant and infallible test of progress. That you wonder more at the work of great men, and that you care more for natural objects. I fear that the tendency of modern thought is to reject the idea of that essential difference in rank between one intellect and another, of which increasing reverence is the wise acknowledgment. You may, at least in early years, test accurately your power of doing anything in the least rightly by your increasing conviction that you never will be able to do it as will as it has been done by others. That is a lesson which differs much, I fear, from the one commonly taught. - John Ruskin.
33. Strive to do the best you can for each sitter. Don't expose the plate until you are satisfied that everything is as near right as you can make it. Keep your heart and mind on what you are doing. Think! read! study I and observe 1 Don't be afraid of doing too much, and success is sure to follow. - Frank Jewell.
84. There are six circumstances which may be used to assist the photographer in judging of the distances of objects: l. Their apparent magnitude; 2 The strength of their shadows; 3. The direction of the two eyes; 4. The parallax of the objects; 5. The distinctness of the small parts; 6.The kind of lens used. In this last, though, is our weakness. Our power is limited to. its capacitiy of rendering detail and distance, while the painter may with his brush "coned nature" or at least more fully satisfy the eye Still, the application of aerial perspective will often enable us so to work as to. keep the several objects in their perspective situations, and secure a natural reality throughout