In order to prevent the backgrounds taking up too much room, and to be able to change and shift them easily, a "shifting-wagon " may be employed, which is a strong frame of slats, contrived as in Fig. 66, and which can be easily moved upon four wheels, in every direction. In the three notches three background frames fit, which are mounted on both sides with stuff, and appropriately cut on should never be resorted to. Hermony sholuld be always attended to, and,above all, general effect.
281. As the photographer is required to make likenesses of all sorts of people, of as many characters and ages, he should have at hand, for ready selection, an assortment of useful accessories, with the use and appropriate-ness of which he should familiarize himself, so as to be able to choose quickly and with taste when the time comes for their use. With infants, the lower corners. The frame must be pretty solid, and of a height of about fifteen centimeters. The size of the background must be regulated by the circumstance whether cabinet sizes, whole pictures, or groups, are to be taken. In the first case, a ground of one and a half to two metres is sufficient; for whole figures, two and a half to three metres, and for groups, the size of the ground will be according to the expansion desired. Dark back-grounds require much longer lighting than lighter ones; the difference is often very material in the same studio. - Dr. Edward Liesegang.
280. I, f<>r one, think the tendency of the day is too strong towards obtaining startling effects and too numerous accessories. During the last three years we have made a great number of vignettes, and in winter time have printed in scenes from negatives taken for the purpose, giving charming effects. Our customers sustain us in our decision, and no doubt it reveals all the operator's strength when he takes his sitter almost alone, having only some simple accessory to help to " tell the story." - W. J. Topley.
A great deal has been done, and very beautiful pictures made, by the mixture of the real and artificial in a picture. Although, for choice, I should prefer everything in a photograph being from nature, I admit a picture to be right when the "effect" is natural, however obtained. It is not the fact of reality that is required, but the truth of imitation that constitutes a veracious picture. Cultivated minds do not require to believe that they are deceived, and that they look on actual nature when they behold a pictorial representation of it. An educated observer does not, like that Moor to whom Bruce, the African traveller, gave the picture of a fish, believe that the artist had made a reality and say: " If this fish at the last day should rise against you and say: ' Thou hast given me a body but not a living soul,' what should you reply?" Art is not the science of deception, but that of giving pleasure, the word pleasure being used in its purest and loftiest sense. For this purpose - that is, the mixture of the real with the artificial - the accessories of the studio should receive the addition of picturesque or ivy - covered logs of wood, ferns, tufts of grass, etc., either growing in low pots or gathered fresh. It will be found easy to make up picturesque foregrounds with these materials, behind which a painted view or sky may be placed. If the background be well painted, it will be found to unite very naturally with the foreground. Care must be taken that the linear perspective be avoided, and that the light fall on the figures in the same direction as it does on the painted screen. - II P. Robinson.
231.For despatch and convenience, it is best to have accessories arranged and waiting. In rustics, have the scenery adjusted, the rocks, stumps, stones, foliage, and backgrounds all effectively made up, with suitable openings in which to place your subject. By thus doing, there intervene no long moments of waiting. No losing heart and expression on the one side, nor a hurried, jumbled - up mess on the other. Also have at hand, books, fans, flowers, ornaments, yelloe tinted letters filled with suggestions with which ladies can beguile thema means of making them comfortable is all you can attempt. Their won drous expressions will provide the rest.
232. In posing the model, every regard should be paid, too, to the arrangement of the draperies. If a male, the folds in the coat, the wrinkles in the trowsers, and the arrangement of the cuffs and neck-wear, should all be looked after and nicely balanced. As to the other sex, there is no end to the opportunities which are given you, by their apparel. to distinguish yourself and show your knowledge of the principles pressed down and running over in Lesson A.
selves and their hands. Have canes, hats, pencils, pens, and more books, to ease off the angularity of masculines. Provide jumping-jacks, harking dogs, tin whistles, jews-harps, and a small organ to bamboozle the babies. Besides, be able yourself to turn into an acrobat, gymnast, or long-tailed monkey, on the shortest notice. - J. H. Kent.
The first thing I will speak of will be my baby lounge. I wanted one, but did not see anything advertised that quite suited me, so I got up one to suit my own ideas, and while it works nicely, it is not patented. I went to a furniture store and got a cheap table, similar to those used in lager-beer saloons, about eighteen by thirty-six inches top, and on casters, so as to move easily; got a board just the size of the table to nail the back and end on to; and it must be made so that the corner will face the side-light whichever way you work. Make your back- and end-board about fifteen inches high in the corner; put a small hole about the middle of the end, one twelve inches from the corner in the back-board, and another in the same line, twenty-four inches from the corner. Now upholster in drab reps or some light-colored covering, and you have a lounge you can tie on one, and sometimes you want to tie on two babies at once. You are ready for them; and another thing, they are up in a good light, high enough, so you can easily work your camera on them. Then have the mother sit down aside of the lounge so the baby can see her, but she is not to talk nor look at the child if it is quiet, and if it is inclined to be a little shy, talk to the mother instead of the child, and the failures will be few. - Forrester Clark.