59. Likewise with a group, do not have each figure placed at equal distance, nor all looking in the same direc-n, unless, indeed, to tell the story, andl even then variety can be obtained by varying the pose ofthe heads. But, as a good illustration will enforce the idea much better than anything that can be writ-ten, carefully study the engraving, for example, of " Family Devotion, by Jean Baptiste Greuze. A better one could not be given,both as to the How of the outlines;and the various inclinations of the heads. Or a similar study may be found in Wilkie's "Blind Fidder." The like it well enough when we can get it cheap, without any trouble, ready made. If one, with a little more ingenuity or Imagination than his fellows, trace out a new tract, he is first allowed to test its fruitfulness, and if it ls found successful, there is a rush of all his fellows to scramble for the nuggets on bis claim. Why don't photographers prospect for themselves? They are pretty sure to find some artistic or technical mine or other that will pan out well, and bring them fame or fortune, perhaps both. - H. P.Robinson. 69. A great improvement can be made in posing (at least in some cases); some photogra-phers, or would-be photographers, treat their subjects in a manner which is perfectly horri-ble.For instance, even in a bust picture, the head is turned to one side about a three-quarter view, just enough for the tip of the nose to come even with the outline of the face, thereby giving an unnatural appearance to most faces; and, again, in Rembrandt lighting, posing the head so that the ear of the sitter will on the right side be just visible, or a part of it, latter will be remembered by the readers of the Philadelphia Photograph for 1879, page 331, and it may be also seen, with remarks, on page 55 of Robinson's admirable Pictorial Effect in Photography. No one at the present day can say lie has no opportunity for studying art, for by the cheapness of the press it is brought within the reach of the humblest, in magazine and book illustration. Our news - stands are full of studies. 60. When you have practised this habit for awhile, you will find yourself measuring every picture you see by the rules of art; and the study of art will become an unending pleasure to you. As another excellent example of this form of composition, an engraving is given here of " The Empty Jug," by A. Von Ostade. Take these figures, individually or collectively, and you will find the pyramidal lines carefully observed by the artist. How capitally the story is told, too, not only by the attitude, but by the expression of the members of this disappointed and curious trio. It is a picture, too, not hard to repeat by means of photography, for such groups are no longer beyond the capabilities of our wonderful art.

Fig. 17.

31 Circles 29

Fig. 18.

31 Circles 30

60. Some photographers pay too much attention to the dress of their customers, forgetting they have a face; this far too common habit must be changed by those who would make a reputation with the general public.

In the now fashionable large head on the card size, always draw the focus well forward; if not, the back hair will be too sharp, the whole effect inartistic, the picture lacking round-ness; also, for the reason that, if too far back, the features will be out of proportion, the nose, mouth, and chin will be distorted and enlarged, thus the drawing will be faulty. -

61. Permit another example - "A Surgical Operation," by Adrian Brouwer, from the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort.Here,to it will be observed how the artist has constrained by the form of' com-position in question, The diagonal form is also well represented in it, amid the internal lines, and the whole is in most excellent harmony. When the study of light is undertaken, this silent picture may be again referred to with profit It is a wonder in that line, showingthe ability of the master in a high de-gree. The interest in the picture is all derived from circumstances actu-ally present, truly expressed on the canvas. The girl who ". . . Never told her love, But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud, Feed on her damask cheek," etc., would have been much more difficult to represent in a picture.

Fig. 19.

Fig. 19. Charles Wager Hull

Charles Wager Hull.

It will be readily seen that the study of costume is of great importance to the artist,yet he must be careful not to go too much into detail in regard to time, place, etc. The promise of art allow him a certain latitude, of which he must avail himself if he would make a pleasing picture; on the other hand, he must be careful not to err in taking to much, between the two extremes ho will be guided by his taste and judgment; rejecting what is unnecessary to truth, and admitting all appropriate beauties and characteristics.

There is, perhaps, no department of art where taste and propriety are so requisite,yet many instances Occur among the works of the great masters where they apparently attached no importance to the costume of a picture. These the student must not take as a guide.

For instance, a picture of Eve, having her hair tied with blue ribbons; or the Israelites, represented with muskets, as in Tintoretto's picture of' The Palling of Manna." - M. A.Dwight

61. In the posing of the model, it should be our first care to see that each and every part of the figure is natural, and that the muscles of the body, and especially the neck.

and easy. Avoid sharp angles and straight lines, and, as a general thing, the head and body should turn in different directions, and a gentle curve of the neck will frequently give ease to the whole position- Frank Jeweli.

62. In the Dresden Gallery is an admirable painting of the studio of Adrian Van Ostade. whose " Empty Jug" you. have just looked upon.