1, like nature herself. And some of the best heads of Rembrandt, fond as he was of shadow tricks, are painted in this broad and sunny way. These great artists studied to give the sum of human life - not five minutes of it. - Charles Akers.

80. If you are a landscape photographer, having selected your point, the proper time of day to give the best effect of light and shade, look closely into nature, mentally note down its most observable peculiarities, and when you have completed your negative and printed from it, corn-pan- notes, those mentally taken and those in the photograph before you: find out what of nature's beauty you have caught, and where you have fallen short. Do not be content with the fact that you have obtained a passable, nay, a good picture, for by such close observation you will acquire a better knowledge of the laws Of nature, discover the weak and the strong points of photography, and thus be able, as experience ripens and increases, to assist the former and make good use of the latter.

81. If you are a portrait photographer, do not be content with having your light built and arranged on the same pirnciple as an adored model the one used in the largest quantity; reflected light, the one used least A diffusion of light, however,over the whole face would render it flat, and with a lark of vigor. Direct light now comes to our assistance, and by a judicious use in small quantity lights up the prominent parts of the face, rendering the whole imago bold and vigorous; and it is sometimes the case that a little reflected light may be used with advantage, but should be used judiciously. - Frank Jewell.

80. Among some photographers the impression seems to prevail that the reflection of the image upon the object-glass is to be depended upon exclusively in judging of the proper lighting. Let me state that these glasses are great flatterers and deceivers, as negatives frequently testify when left to them. Should you be using a number of instruments, the chain are the color of each glass is different, which makes them still less reliable as guides. Trust your eyes in arranging your lights, and when once accustomed to the manipulations in that particular, you will prove yourself competent in your position, and have secured much that is all-important to success in your profession. - A. Simson.

81. There is no part of the human face that should be represented in a portrait as white. There may and must be parts that are lighter, but these parts should never be white The whole face should be shaded, while the most prominent points, such as the nose, brows, chin, etc., should be touched with light. The retiring parts of the face must be shaded more and more as they retire, but care must be taken that they become not too dark and lose definition. As a general thing, too much light is used (I suppose for the purpose of shortening the exposure); but this is an erroneous idea. The light should come from one direction, and more from one side than the other.

There are three kinds or qualities of light used in portrait photography, viz., diffused, direct, and reflected. Of these three, diffused light bears the most important part, and is of yours who produces pictures worthy of the art;and having found out that on a certain day and on a certain spot, under such a light, have produced a photograph as good or better than your neighbor, that from henceforth that is the spot, and that on that spot every future sitter must be placed, irrespective of age, form, or feature,color of dress.

No; on the contrary, carefully select the best situation and arrange the lighting, having a keen, quick eye to its adaptability to bring out the points, losing the others in the shade, and, while the general effect of the whole is seen to, do not lose sight of the tender variety of lights within lights and shade within shade; and when you have given attention to all this, in the posing and arranging, observe that the effects thus far sought for are not lost by a wrong exposure, or by under - or overdeveloping. Be fully assured that if you do not habitually accustom yourself to look for these finer and more subtle gradations of light and shade, and use your highest powers - to secure them, your works will neither be a credit to vourself nor to the art.

82. Having now tried to explain the value of a knowledge of chiaro-oscuro. or light and shade, to the photographer, and to urge the importance of the study thereof, it is in order to proceed to investigate this principle in its various situations, But before doing so, please to notice few of the more palpable and self-evident comhinations.. Do not neglect these important points. They may be divided into five parts, viz.: light, half - light middle - tint, half - dark, and dark. These are the five grand points of the subject now to he studied. In beginning any work we should know which one we desire to secure, and work and arrange accord.

82. My reading and my observation amount to simply this: Have a room where; can control your light thoroughly and perfectly. Have a room where you can give as much diffused light on the face, without making it one particle more on one side than on the other than the eye can bear comfortably; than grade it. Then open your sky-light just as you want it, to give the right light on the nose and forehead, giving the shadows as they ought to come, and you have your light right for the subject; and for the different lights, change your subject around the room, and if the nose happens to be a short one, you have got to manage it,orif it is very long, and if there are wrinkles your diffused light lights them up. - A. S. South worth ingly. After the work is done it should then he compared with what it was intended to produce, and see how far success has been attained.

83. When the picture is composed of light and half - light chiefly, the darks will have more force and point, hut the picture will look feeble and weak, to use a common term. When it is composed mainly of dark and hall-dark, the lights will he more brilliant, but they will he apt to look spotty for want of half-light to spread and connect them, and the picture will be in danger of becoming black and heavy; and when the picture is composed chiefly of the middle-tint, the dark and light portions would have a more equal chance of coming into notice, hut the general effect is in danger of being insipid and common. This will be more fully understood if the operator will take examples of his own or other work, lighted differently, and carefully study the effects mentioned, so far as the pictures will permit.