Pyrogallic Acid,...........................

90 grains.

Water,...........................

32 "

Acetic Acid,...........................

2 1/2 "

Citric Acid ( saturated solution),...........................

10 drops.

This is for medium, or good for printing contact negatives. This class of negatives is what is required for making enlargements by development. For hard negatives, use less pyro; for weak, such as regular solar negatives, use more pyro. The old rule was to swab on both the iodizers and the silver; but in that way you are pretty sure to get streaks and stains in about half or more of the prints you try. In developing, lay the paper, face up, on a clean board, on which a clean piece of white bibulous paper is laid. Have the developer in a wide - mouth bottle. Commence at one end, and apply enough with one sweep of the hand to completely cover the print; now watch it grow. If stains or fog occur, either you have overtimed, or allowed actinic light to get at the print, especially so if the picture pops out quick and then blackens all over. If it comes up slowly and stains from this cause, add more citric acid. As soon as developed, plunge it into clean water, and from that to the hypo, for clearing, of usual strength; then wash as usual. Thick paper needs longer and stronger cleaning than thin. If the print comes up too flat in developing, add a little acid silver solution to the pyro. - A. Hesler.

My method of enlarging common card negatives is as follows: I made a box seven feet long, fitting my 10 x 12 shield and ground - glass the same as on my camera. By placing two movable slides inside of the box, marked A and B, fastened to rods D, D slide a is fitted so as to hold quarter or half size plates. By a movable frame fastened on slide a, slide B is to bold a quarter- or half - size lens. The slide b is also fastened to rod d, running under the box in a groove so as to exclude all light: c is to hold 20

Fig. 96.

Lesson W Enlargements And Lantern Slides 117

349. Up to within a twain of years, the usual results produced by means of the solar camera would not bear comparison with those from contact negatives, and to render them at all tolerable they must be retouched or worked in color in sonic way. This was due to the fact that every defect in the tiny negative must be greatly enlarged, and of course made so much more obtrusive in the print. This gave rise to several methods of preparing the negatives so that these blemishes would be almost entirely overcome. A great deal of money has been paid to obtain the " secret" ground-glass and shield. By placing the negative in slide a, and moving the rods D, D, you can get any size transparency, by which you can make fine negatives of any size, or as many negatives from the transparency as you wish. This is a cheap way of making enlargements, and will well serve those who cannot afford a solar camera for such small work. - Neal P. Harrington.

349. My solutions for reducing the negative are, viz.:

No.1.Bichloride of Mercury....................

3 grains.

Rain Water,....................

1 ounce.

No.2.Iodide of Potassium,....................

3 grains

Rain Water,....................

1 ounce.

To reduce, flow the negative with No. 1 and wash under the tap. Flow the negative with No. 2 and wash under the tap. Fix in cyanide and wash under the tap. If not sufliciently reduced, repeat above until satisfactory. - F. C. Phillips. For the retouching preparation use

French Sheet gelatin,......................................................

1 ounce.

Rain Water,......................................................

18 ounces.

Acetic Acid,......................................................

1/2 ounce.

Filter through a fine sponge in a warm place. While the negative is wet, flow with the retouching preparation, only in sufficient quantity to dry with a gloss, holding level over lamp or stove until thoroughly dried. Grind with sifted pumice-stone or tripoli all parts where retouching is needed, If too much tooth, rub with Canton flannel and retouch (stipple) as finely as possible. Touch in the lights in the drapery where needed with a soft lead-pencil. Touch the laces with Florence white. Breathe heavily over the retouching to fasten it. If the negative is warped, find a glass to match with it perfectly. Warm the cover glass and pour on a sufficient quantity of balsam of fir (hardened by heat) to flow between and around the edges, leaving a bead of the balsam of fir all around the edges of the negative. Rub the negative surface, excepting the retouched portion, with a small tuft of cotton and a drop of sweet oil, removing all surplus oil with clean cotton. After the glasses are together and the edges are completely covered with balsam, bind the edges with heavy sticking - paper, rubbing down closely over the edges, to exclude the air and prevent the balsam from coming out while printing. The glass must fit closely together to prevent coming apart while under the heat of condenser. Never use a negative smaller than cabinet size for a full sheet print. Use a half-size portrait tube for the objective. - L. "W. B.

Instead of the usual varnish, flow with a solution of gelatin, one part to six of water (or nearly that proportion), holding the plate level over a strong but diffused heat until the of these processes, and patents have been obtained for modifications of them, but it is believed that what follows is good and free to all. If the negative is too dense for solar printing, it may be reduced, then retouched, and finally prepared for the Camera. When so prepared and printed,the results may be quite comparable with contact or direct negative prints.

gelatin sets perfectly smooth and glossy, which will soon be acquired by practice. Grind in the usual way with pumice to make a tooth for retouching, which is done in the usual style, being careful to have as fine as possible. After the retouching is done breathe on the film, which blends it into the gelatin, so that it may be rubbed over with oil, glycerin, or any other substance, giving a transparent film free from grain or line. A little salicylic acetic acid, or, better, ten drops of a saturated solution of alum, will preserve the gelatin from decomposition, and keep it from dissolving again. - C. Tomlinson. To one quart of rain water add