174. The best rule for development, if the exposure has been right, is to proceed with it until the image fully appears, appearing slowly. If the image flashes out immediately upon the application of the developer, thus indicating over-exposure, watch closely until all the details are out, then quickly stop further action by holding the plate under the tap.
175. Lines of a still different character often appear. They form in irregular squares resembling the lines upon the shell of some quaint old overcome by using in each ounce of collodion, bromo-iodized with ammonium accordingly a grain of chloride of calcium dissolved in a few drops of strong alcohol; or dissolve twenty-five grains of iodide of magnesium in two ounces of strong alcohol, and add one drachm of this to each three ounces of the collodion. - George W. Wallace.
174. In developing, see that the developer is filtered clear, and flow it over the plate in one even wave. Do not have it too strong, or semicircular lines radiating from the corner will be the result; neither must you have it too weak, or hardness and want of half-tone will be the result. From twenty to thirty grains to the ounce will be about right. Have all your developing clean, and wash both your negative and your hands well after each operation. Finally, fix your negative, wash it well, and dry it. Lastly, a few words on the apparatus. If it is not in good condition, all the trouble spent on chemicals is useless. See, then, that the camera is in the best condition to assist the chemicals to produce the best results, i. e., see that there are no chinks or cracks in the woodwork, nor holes in the corners of the bellows, by which white light is admitted; see that the lenses are clean and covered with a hood to keep out reflected light. Keep it in the dark as much as possible when operating. Having accomplished the above necessary conditions, go to work, pose and light your sitter artistically, and I think you will soon go home at night with a lighter heart and heavier pocket. - George H. Fennemore.
175 The first signs of failure of the negative bath with me are generally a refusal on the part of the silver solution to lie perfectly smooth on the plate after the latter is sufficiently sensitized.
I do not mean that the plate does not coat smoothly, but, after it is all ready and withdrawn from the bath, the silver solution runs down in an irregular manner (lumpy, I call it), and the plate takes rather longer to sensitize than usual. Cause: Too much ether and alcohol in the bath. Remove the bath and test for strength. (I frequently run mine down as low as twenty - five to thirty grains, and produce as good effects as at forty.) Boll about one-third its volume away, let cool, add water enough to make from thirty-five to forty grains, filter, and you are all right. One hundred more plates may now be dipped before the next signs of failure present themselves. - Elbert Anderson.
Now, in order to get delicacy in our picture, reduce the strength of iron on the plate by adding water, and an entire change takes place; the silver deposits finely over the entire tortoise. These arise from ether and alcohol being present in the bath, which cause the nitrate of silver solution to run into lines after taking the plate from the bath, and also prevent the developer from flowing smoothly over it. The remedy is, boil the bath down about one-half, and add fresh rain - water or distilled water until it is the proper strength again, after which filter and it is ready for use.
176. The developer other troubles. Ocasionally it will be seen on a negative that, at the lower right - hand corner, there is large semitransparent spot and from it lines radiate in a curve all over the plate.
exposure, softening the strong outlines in contrast, and giving a roundness and delicacy not possible with one strength of iron. - S. P. Wells.
Try my method of pneumatic development. By its use the details are developed quicker and with more clearness, and designs produced whereby lights and shades are brought out. This method consists in the following operation: Take a small india - rubber ball, with tube attached to it, and direct a current of air on to the deep shadows. By this operation the collodion film becomes more sensitive, and the development goes on more quickly, whereby greater precision and distinctness are firm to the details. - Ernest Kreuger.
Keep a saturated solution of iron on hand. For use, reduce to fifteen grains, by hydrometer, the quantity required for a day's use; acetic acid, one ounce to twelve ounces of the fifteen - green solution. If my bath is new, I don't use any alcohol unless it gives too strong a contrast. By adding one - half ounce or more of alcohol it will work softer. I think the adding of acetic acid just before you use it, works better and quicker; but if the negatives lack vigor, I think that an older developer will work better; also for copying. So it is a good plan to have some old on hand. Sometimes the best effects can be had by mixing old and new.I sometimes add a few drops of acetic acid to the developer just before I use it; I find that it has more to do with results than many are aware of. I have tried a great many articles in connection with the iron, but I believe that one can work more sure and get as good results without any of them. - A. W. Kimball.
The developer flows in a greasy manner: I. From the bath being old, and containing much ether and alcohol. In this case a purely aqueous liquid is not capable of flowing at once over the film and a portion of spirit must be added to the developer. 2.
From use of too, much spirit in the developer when the bath is newly made, and nearly free from alcohol; if the surface liquid of the film is entirely aqueous in character, the developer should be aqueous also. The developer refuses to wet certain parts of the film, and will not flow up to the edge. A gelatinous collodion often repels the developer, and especially so with a newly-prepared bath. Old baths, containing ether and alcohol, render the surface of the film less gelatinous, and remedy the defect. The plate should not bo dipped too quickly, or the difficulty will be increased. Acetic acid and spirit, added to the developer, are serviceable. The stronger the alcohol in the collodion the more marked the defect. In hot weather when large plates become partially dry and repel the developer, redip them in the bath, or use a developing solution greatly diluted with water. - T.Frederick Hardwich.