101. The choice of apparatus and materials with which to work should have the wisest attention in photography. If good results are to be secured, then the wherewithal to produce them of the best quality must he employed invariably. In no department of the arts or of the sciences or manufactures is this more true than in photography; then the good rule - get the best - should he carefully followed in the purchase of all the articles employed in its practice.

102. Let us therefore proceed to inform us - 1, as to what are Deeded; and, J. as to how to select them; or, in other words, how to procure the proper outfit for the practice of photography in and out of doors. The camera comes first. This must he absolutely first - class in every respect compact, light, strong, exact in all its parts - made of carefully seasoned wood and well wrought metal, carefully put together with all modern improvements, with the best workmanship throughout. The cameras supplied now by our American manufacturers leave nothing to be desired; they are the best in the world. So there is no excuse for the purchase of an imperfect or spurious one, whose movable parts will not work; which allows light to creep through its joints, thus spoiling every attempt to get a good result with it; or distorts all nature villanously.

108. A modern camera comprises a dark chamber, varying in cording to the dimensions of the picture to be made with it. which is provided with a bellows and focussing machinery,by means of which the image may be sharply defined through the lens upon the groundglass at its back, the lens being placed at the front. The ground - glass, after a focus is procured, is displaced by a dark-slide, containing the sensi-tive plate which is to receive the image of the object being photographed.

The illustrations in this lesson were made from apparatus manufactured by the American Optical Company (Scovill Manufacturing Company, New York, proprietors) especially this work.

104. The Portrait Camera is usually constructed with a square bellows, long enough to permit such distension as will enable us to make various sizes of pictures with it. It is heavier than the view camera, provided with a longer platform and a double "swing-back." This last convenience is for the purpose of enabling one to change the position of the plate when difficulties occur in focussing. When lenses of short focus are used, for old people and children, the " swing-back "is a great help. It also saves much annoyance, both to the operator and his subject, for frequently an entire change of position or arrangement would have to be made, or the place of the apparatus changed, were it not possible to accomplish the desired end by means of the "swing" or adjustable "back" of the camera.

105. The View Camera of the American apparatus-maker is his pride. He has applied all his ingenuity to its construction, to make it light, strong, convenient, accurate, and elegant in appearance. In principle it is precisely the same as that of the portrait camera. In construction every effort is made to secure a do-crease of weight. The bellows is made of "cone" shape; the framework of the toughest and strongest wood; the metal parts of the most improved form, and the whole so skilfully put together as to stand any climate and much abuse, as well as use, before it gives way. In a view camera the "double swing - back" is absolutely essential, and the plate-holders should be so constructed as to enable one to make the view vertically or horizontally.

Fig. 28.

Portrait Camera.

Portrait Camera.

Fig. 29.

Cone Bellows View Camera.

Cone-Bellows View Camera.

106. The Stereoscopic Camera may be mentioned sea form largely used in America, And, although a view camera, it has a few points which are different. It is made after the plan of the view camera, but to as to use two lenses, that a double image may be had at one exposture upon the same plate.Modern ones are provided with a movable division, so that the same camera may also be employed for taking single view with one objects The best size for such work is 5 x8 inches, and this sort of a camera is the best for a beginner in out - door work to employ, until he can aspire to something larger. Anything smaller is insatisfactory, and insufficient to inspire much enthusiasm for out - door photography. The regular view camera is made of all sizes from 4x5 inches; to 22x28 inches, or even larger when required.