203. In order to secure the best effects in portraiture, it is necessary to have a covered enclosure free from the action of the elements, and where the light may be controlled to suit the purpose. Such an enclosure is called a "glass studio" or "skylight." The former, because it is necessary that it should be of glass in order to admit the light, and as the work-room where the painter produces his effects is called a studio, so is this, the work-room of the photographer, called the studio. The latter name is given because it must, in order to be properly lighted, be erected so near the sky that no surrounding objects can interfere with the supply of light from the right direction. In constructing photographic studios, more gross and expensive blunders have been made, probably, than in any other photographic direction. Some of the wildest theories have been followed by our best photographers in all countries, regardless of expense, in this line, and there are countless wrecks lying about as useless

203. Now do not be deluded with the idea that, whenever you see a good photographic effect, it is all owing to the light. It is not so. What I mean is, that a picture may he good, and yet be made in a very badly constructed light, and that the construction of the light is not the only thing to consider when you desire to make a good picture. I have seen men have splendidly constructed studios, without one idea as to the best way of working them. I have seen men working most beautiful results in most inconvenient and cramped up places. Thus you will perceive that the "light" is only one means of assistance in securing the best results. So, when you examine good work again, you must not only say, "His light is better than mine," but he has more feeling, more brains than I, together with better manipulative skill, and I must think how I may reach up to him. - Old argentum.

I will say here in the beginning that a skilful artist, who knows how to use his eyes and how to judge of the distribution of light on his model, will know how to turn out a good picture even if the atelier should be faulty in its construction. The cook of our old Fritz, the hero king of the last century - and not to be confounded with the present " Our Fritz," who is his great-grandchild - made a splendid fricassee from an old kid glove, but this does not prove, by any means, that an old kid glove is the best material for making a good fricassee, but it proves the excellence of the cook. In Germany we have generally longer glass-houses than in America, and I give the preference to such, for we can shorten them at any time by curtains, but it is very difficult to lengthen a glass-house which is too short. - Dr.h.vogel. (154) as a defunet oil - well. Then should be no difficulty in the matter at all, however, though indeed there are fewer mistakes made now than there used to be. This is accounted for by the fact that the principles governing studio construction are better understood of late years than formerly.

204. In choosing a locality for a studio, the first consideration is the source of the light supply. This should, if possible, come mainly from the north.A cleat top - light is needed at an angle of about forty - five degrees, and a side-light, vertical, or nearly so, running from the lowest point of the top-lighl to within say two feet of the floor. This sidelight is best also towards the north, hut answers well a good part of the day if it he on the east or west side of the building, or both. All these should he clear from shadows or reflections thrown by other buildings, for the obvious reason that any such interference would cause annoyance in the management of the light advantages have been claimed for this plan. 1st. Greater strength. 2d. Less leakage. 3d. More light. The first claim may be tenable, although the extra weight of glass vitiates the claim. The second claim holds good to a certain extent, because the steepness of the pitch overcomes some of the back-flow of the water. - E. Z. "Webster.

205. The size, form, and direction are largely governed by the the of the Studio, and as photographers arc usually dependent upon the altera-tions made in buildings for them, tiny most make the best of their sources. After all, it is vastly more in the management of the studio you have to operate in than in its construction It has been impossible

204. I believe that every photographer will admit that a northern exposure, free and unobstructed, is the most desirable, because the light is more uniform, consequently it is more easily managed. Still, an east, west, or south light sometimes has a decided advantage. An east light for early, a west light for late, and a south light for tltirk weather. My own experience proves that photographers generally have to take the best they can get, and make the most of it. But there are others who might have something better, if they only know what they really ought to have. I have seen some outrageously defective lights, when it was simply the fault of the liners (see Fig. 40). Here was originally a passable side-light, western exposure, with an 8x8 feet skylight, flat on the roof. Now this was not so dreadful bad, but the artist concluded that be must "go for a northern exposure," with the result as you see. Now, he might about as well have set his "patients" in an old-fashioned chimney-corner. depending upon what light came down the chimney. Of course, the side-light took off some of the deep shadow under the eyebrow, nose, and chin, and the reflectors "countered " on the other side; still, so many cross-rays put goggles on all except "pap" eyes, and the best results obtainable were unartistic, because there was no harmony of light and shadow. - E.Z.Webster.

205. Here is the most common form of skylight (in the Eastern States), but it is by far the most expensive, costing twice or three times as much, and not one whit better than a plain flat sash, laid out at an angle sufficient to insure the rapid passing off of the rain. Three to secure good effects of light and shade in some of the most expensively constructed studios, while they have been "managed" in some which seem to be the most simple and hopeless in every way.