237. The studio may be constructed in the most skilful, workmanlike, and expensive manner, and yet be wasted upon its owner, unless he be possessed of skill sufficient to manage it. Experience, actual and hard, only can supply this; hut it is a fascinating study, and if prosecuted. with feeling, it will reciprocate and repay to your entire satisfaction and delight The posing and lighting, or managing of the model, then, must not fail to have consideration here.
238. Direct, diffused, and reflected light are the three qualities or forms which are to be moulded or managed by the skill of the photo - artist, to produce the results he desires. The first needs the most careful hand-
287. Light is the element of life, the drawing-pencil of the photographer. It is the brush with which he paints. For him a thorough knowledge of this element is as important as it is for the painter to possess an exact knowledge of his colors. - Dr. H. Vogel.
What requisites must I have to do as good photographic work as can be done at our present stage of enlightenment, is a question finding lodgment in every true photographer's mind of to-day. We believe that first of all we must have a good light, and experience enough to know how to use it, and what its capabilities are. In defining a "good light," I would say the one is best which will work the most uniform, and needs the least array of curtain appurtenances, and is most simple to manage. - Mrs. E. N. Lockwood.
Light is an emanation, or something which proceeds from bodies by means of which they are made visible. All bodies may be divided into self - luminous and non-luminous. Self -luminous bodies are those which have the power of discharging light. Non-luminous bodies are those which have not the power of discharging light. One non-luminous body may receive light from another non-luminous body and discharge it upon a third; but the light must originally come from some self-luminous body. When a lighted candle is brought into a dark room, the form of the flame is seen by its own light, and the objects in the room are made visible by the light which they receive from the candle and again throw back. Those objects on which the light of the candle does not fall receive reflected light ling and judicious application; the second is of the most service, and the last comes in as a helper in time of need, for reasons that vary with circumstances, but usually to supply light where it cannot otherwise be had. 239. Various as are the effects procurable under any skylight, just as varied are the means employable to produce them. Shade as well as light is necessary to secure roundness and brilliancy of effect. There should be gradation from one to the other, and also a complete harmony between them. Contrast to a moderate degree is requisite, and now and then masses of light may be used, and of shadow as well, to secure the most charming effects.
A diffused light will not give you shadows; it will not give you roundness; it will not give you any relief; it will not give you form, because, if you could light everything here in this room, all exactly of the same strength, it would be just like a piece of white paper, there would not be anything like form to be seen here. If you light the form of the column on the wall just as light on this side as on the other, there will be no shadow there. If you light the centre of it as much as the edge, you will not see any form at all. - A. S. South worth.
239. It is a rule with portrait painters to represent their sitters in a light, falling from the side, at an angle of about forty-five degrees. This gives the best light for the majority of faces, and to secure such a light should be the aim in constructing the light for a studio. - L. G Bigelow.
Of the importance of effectively " lighting the sitter," there will not be two opinions amongst photographic artists, therefore our hints will tend to show how this desirable end may be attained, rather than to discuss the principles upon which it should be based. Yet, we would say, in passing, that a monochrome picture must necessarily depend more upon its effect of light and shade for producing lasting pleasure than upon any other quality. This is a point upon which photographers would do well to ponder. Why is it that a photograph or print, which at first struck you as possessing considerable merit, does not continue to yield a feast to the eye? The pose and expression are good, the manipulation is in all points satisfactory, and yet you soon grow tired of it. Is it that the subject is uninteresting? By no means. The idea is as happy in its conception as in execution. "Why, then, does it not continue to give satisfaction to the mind? Just because it lacks that charm which harmony of light and shade produces. What is harmony of light and shade? Of sound and color - you can understand that term; but of mere light and shade - what does it mean? The term as applied to sound means concord, agreement; and why should this not apply to a scale of shades, from the faintest to the deepest, and their blending together so as not to irritate the sensitive eye? yet, it is not, after all, a mere harmonious scale of sounds which gives pleasure to the ear, but the skilful use of these sounds, contrasting, blending, epeatring; so with the scale of shades in a picture, they must be worked into a tune, and the more skill and "feeling" exercised in doing this, the more lasting will be the pleasure excited.
What we want, then, in the first place, is a highly cultivated as well as natural perception of this kind of beauty. And, in the second place, we want the means at our disposal for thoroughly carrying out our conceptions of it. It is to assist in the accomplishment of the latter that the above was written. - J. M. Burgess.
Suppose a ball to be the object on which the light falls in a direction of forty-five degrees, or the diagonal of a square, and at a right angle from the ball to the place where you stand, one-half the ball will appear illuminated and the other dark. This state of the two hemispheres constitutes the two masses of light and shade. In the centre of the mass of light falls the focus of illumination on the ball, between the centre of the illumination and the circle of the ball. Where the illumination reaches its extremity, lies what may be called