244. After the negative is entirely finished, the important operation of printing proofs from it next oocupies our attention. And right here.

the student needs to call up his best thoughts and exercise his utmost care. A few years ago, it was imagined that "any supernumerary could print," and not much attention was given to this department of photographic art-work. Now, however, the tables are turned. The head printer in a well - organized establishment ranks with, or next to, the chief operator, and the work of the one requires the exercise of as much taste and skill as the other. The printer should be allowed everything of the best quality to work with, and have a comfortable room to work in.

244.. A photograph printer is worth his price just in proportion as he uses care in his work. The printer must he held responsible for his silvering, printing, and toning, with no red re . He cannot lay the fault upon the negative maker, nor upon the toner. If In- understands his business, he is invaluable. If he does not understand it, he had better turn his attention to something else, for I boldly assert that the photograph printer is the most important man in a gallery. - I. B. Webster.

The size of my printing-room is 10 x 15 x 10 feet. A is the printing - shelf, upon which the negative - boards are placed out to print; is the sash of glass through which the light enters on the shelf, and which sash is kept in place by the hooks, c; D is a window, which swings back and forth by means of the hinges d'. This window, when closed, is fastened by the button, E. This window was arranged to permit the printer to open it in the - winter time and sweep the snow from the glass, without the trouble of removing his frames, and then taking the sash of ground - glass in. There is another sash of plain glass made, which is placed out instead of the grow one when it is to desired by the printer.

F is the window - cord by which the sash is pulled up or let down. G is the drawer in which the albumen paper is placed when it is ready for printing; H is the drawer into which the prints are slipped through the little aperture k, which is cut in the bench, and supplied with a

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Lesson M Printing On Albumen Paper 79

Fig. 57.

245. It is a common fault, among employers especially, to devote too little attention to the construction of the printing apartments. They should be roomy, well exposed to the south, well ventilated, clean, well accoutred, and provided with the wherewithal to produce results of the best quality. Probably one of the best models was that constructed by the Centennial Photographic Company, at their studio in the International Exhibition grounds, in 1876. A drawing of a section of it is here given, more especially to show the arrangement of the rests for the printing-boards during exposure. A portion of a graphic description given of it at the time is found below. Of course, few need such large printing quarters, but useful hints for the construction of smaller ones maybe drawn from this. The great trouble with many printing apartments is, that they are neither roomy enough nor convenient. Again, they are cover of tin or zinc; this arrangement saves opening the drawer so often as to discolor the whites of the prints therein contained; l is the drawer in which the albumen paper is kept. M is a drawer In which the plain salted paper may be placed, and in it is another drawer in which the unsalted paper can be placed; p p are negatives which are to be printed, and which, when they are printed, are temporarily placed at p, until they are filed away, which is done in another room. The shelves, rrR, are also negative shelves, which are used for special purposes, such as the "family negatives," etc. The wide shelf is made for the storing away of negative boards, vignette blocks, porcelain printing-frames, etc., all of which are kept in order. The filling of the board is done on the bench, T; U is the door leading to the silvering- and toning - rooms; v is the fuming - box, which will also be explained further on; w is the box in which the old or used hypo-bath is poured, and zinc thrown into it; x is a bench which is used for one thing and another, also for keeping bottles, etc., upon. C. W. Hearn, in the Practical Printer.

Fig. 58.

Lesson M Printing On Albumen Paper 80

245. The exposure was southern. It must have been at least a hundred feet in length, probably more. There was a railing running around the whole of it, and a projecting roof above. It must have been Mr. Wilson who conceived the idea of adapting the southern exposure to printing purposes. Large sashes were fitted from the roof to the balustrade, inclined at slight angle, the ends were protected by partitions, and the result was a long, magnificently lighted apartment. The side-screens, of tissue-paper, were so adjusted as to not provided with the proper means of placing the printing-boards at a proper angle in the light, and no plan is arranged for screening them or for protecting weak negatives from too strong a light while print; Finally, the cold should be guarded against by some arrangement that will enable the room to be closed in winter without losing light

246. In printing from the negative, one is subjected to as many annoyances and failure- causes as in making it, but the operations are so beau-tiful, and the results so charming, that if the heart is put in to the work, - if yon make yourself a part of it, - there is sufficienl in it to excite your be made serviceable fur changes of light, and racks placed immediatly under the windows, as high as the hand could reach, for the sup|port of the printing-frames.

The racks for the printing - frames at the windows are plainly shown here; they are permanently fixed under the sash, and of such width as to suit the largest measure of printing-frames, and made so as to hold the printing-frames both at the top and bottom, at the proper angle to the sun. In the inside printing - room the sashes are hung on a swivel so as to change the angle; but those in the portico or outer printing-room are permanent All the printing, or nearly all, is done under tissue paper; this is a slow method, it is true, but the results are far superior, and as superiority is the principal aim in this establishment, but little regard is paid to anything that will interfere. By the cut it will be seen that the printers stand side by side, and behind them are arranged their counters, and drawers, and changing - boxes, and all the other con veniences of a model printing-room, and its dimenensions are so great that one may pass by the other, or the overseer pass to and fro, without any interference with the work, and while everything is supplied of the best quality and in liberal quantity, yet due attention is given to economy, and above all to excellence - J. L. Gihon.