For further hints on apparatus and the lens subject, refer to Lessons B and C.

The annexed drawing represents one of the camera-boxes of the American Optical Company, known as the 76 Pocket 6x8 Dry-plate. Camera - box. It is a model of lightness, compactness, general excellence, and perfect workmanship. It is supplied with one double dry-plate-holder, which is also very light. (Of course, additional holders may be had in any number.) It has also a movable central piece (to be inserted when used as a stereoscopic camera), a swing-back, a sliding front, and an attachment for using the camera vertically when the horizontal plate is not suitable for the subject in hand. Such an apparatus as this can be carried in one hand, and should accompany every photograph lover on every journey be makes. It is always ready for work, and is pretty certain in its results.

Fig. 71.

Lesson T Photography Outside 93

Fig. 72.

Lesson T Photography Outside 94

find a point of sight for the view which was in their mind to take. "While they were knocking about, the light would lose its snap, the shadows lengthen, and the best possible opportunity for securing the view escape. Open the mind to learning and the voice of experience always. 308. In out-door manipulation there are certain modifications in the formulae used which are essential. Of course everything works with greater rapidity than when employed in the glass studio, though this, too, is regulated by the nature of the subject, the objective used, the light, the diaphragm, and the time of day. Hard experience only can teach all the technicalities of this department: but, after all, the learning: is so pleasant

308. So far as my experience has gone, the chemistry of out-door work does not differ materially from in-door work. I use precisely the same material as I do in my gallery, with such changes in compounding them as the nature of the object to be photographed requires. I generally use the simplest developer - iron and acetic acid, and only enough of the acid to make it flow evenly. Alcohol I never use in a developer, unless driven by necessity, and I always try to avoid the necessity by removing alcohol from my bath by evaporation, as often as it begins to annoy me. A few drops of alcohol in a developer may not be injurious, but I never could see any good results from it as long as the bath was in a good condition. I work as nearly as possible a neutral bath. Only a slight trace of acid is sufficient to keep the deep shadows from fogging. I use in my bath from forty to fifty-five grains of silver to the ounce. - J. C. Potter.

My landscape negative bath is as follows:

Nitrate of Silver,..................

4 ounces

Distilled Water,..................

......40 "

When the silver is all dissolved, add eight grains of iodide of potassium dissolved in one ounce of water; shake the whole well up and filter. In trying a plate, if there be any sign of fog, not from over-exposure, add one or two drops of C. P. nitric acid. After constant use a bath becomes saturated with excess of iodide, alcohol, ether, and organic matter. When in this state it is almost impossible to get anything like clear work. The quickest and best remedy, then, for rectifying the bath is boiling. - T. C. Roche.

The two collodions which I use for field work are as follows:

No.1. - Alcohol,..................

10 ounces.

Ether,..................

8 ounces

Iodide of Ammonium,..................

81 grains

Bromide of Cadmium,..................

35 grains

Cotton,..................

90 "

No.2. - Alcohol,..................

10 ounces

Ether,..................

10 ounces

Iodide of Ammonium,..................

100 grains

Bromide of Potassium..................

45 grains

Cotton,..................

120 "

No. 1 is a light collodion, working fine detail, but not great intensity. No. 2 is a heavy collodion, working less detail and quite intense. Combining the two properly gives you that no one need despair. The bath, collodion, and developer being all right, your effeects should be so. almost any result you may desire. Good judgment and careful manipulation should make you master of the field. - J. C. Potter. For out - door collodion, I use

309. The nicest development is required in landscape work, and in accomplishing it the time of exposure should be kept constantly in mind; and not only this, the nature of the subject should be remembered. I great difficulty with landscape work, particularly, is to preserve the delicacy of the white parts without rendering the contract with the darks too strong and harsh. As a usual thing, it in wiser to expose fully enough for the details in the darker parts, and let the real be managed the best way possible, but if , as in case of clouds or a waterfall, the light parts arc the most important - expose to suit them.

Alcohol,..................

1/2 ounce.

Ether..................

1/2 "

Iodide of Ammonium,..................

2 1/2 grains.

Iodide of Cadmium,..................

2 1/2 "

Bromide of Cadmium,..................

2 1/2 grains

Gun - cotton,..................

5 -6 "

This collodion keeps well, and is good for view and portrait work. If it should become too pale by long keeping, which it will do when the gun-cotton has been washed in diluted aqua ammonia, tint it with a solution of iodine in alcohol. - John L. Gihon.

309. My developer for field work is -

Double Sulphate of Iron and Ammonia,..................

4 ounces.

Water..................

64 to 70 ounces

Yellow Rock - candy,..................

3 to 4 ,,

Acetic Acid, No.8,..................

5 to 6 ,,

If the silver bath has been in use long, the addition of one ounce of alcohol to the above developer will cause the solution to flow more freely. As a general rule, this developer reduces the time for dark details at least one - third; for studio work this developer is too strong, and should be reduced with water to suit the light. - T. C. Roche.

Developer for out-door negatives. -

Glacial Acetic Acid,..................

1 ounce.

Water,..................

16 ounces.

Protosulphate of Iron, to the ounce of solution, ...................

. 15 to 30 grains.

The proportions have to be varied to much according to circumstances, that it it impossi-ble to give them exactly. With a little practice one soon learnt to regulate the strength of the iron and acid to suit the work in hand. In warm weather the developer can be diluted just before using; consequently, one can carry as much in one bottle as when diluted will make two. - John L. Gihon.

Carry development as far as possible. If trouble ensues, seek the remedy elsewhere

310. If it is desirable to develop the plates in the field, and it is the most certain and safe way, then a dark-tent must be employed. If the plate is kept too long before exposure, it will become stained. Again, a very common trouble lies in the bath solution not remaining evenly distributed over the exposed plate, but collecting in streaks or drops of oily appearance, and tending to unequal and defective development. This tendency is due to the collodion giving a film too horny and too repellant of aqueous solutions. It may arise from too much ether in the collodion,