moving the whole time, and directly the greasiness has disappeared, drain, and put it into the slide, with a piece of wet yellow calico behind it. If it is an interior that is taken on this plate, the developer will range from medium to strong, as it happens to be well or badly lit; if it is an out-door view away from the tent that has necessitated the plate being kept, a developer from medium to weak will be required. I find, as a rule in this case, that a less exposure and a weaker developer are required than if the tent had been on the spot, and the plate been kept ten minutes instead of two hours. - John L. Gihon.
These two items (hot water and sugar) to the landscape photographer are of great importance. By the first distilled water is superseded in the making up of baths, and a more perfect solution of silver is obtained, with a thorough elimination of organic matter. In the case of the developer a greater saturation of iron, and, if to it be added a small proportion of white crystallized sugar, will not only make it keep almost indefinitely, but will impart to it such qualities as to make it a pleasure to work with. Besides creating a saving of alcohol and acetic acid, it equalizes the action of the iron on the film, restraining the development, and rendering over-exposure a matter of rare occurrence. - W. Hardino Warner.
My collodion formula for making interior views is
Iodide of Sodium,...........................
Iodide of Ammonium,...........................
Bromide of Sodium,...........................
Chloride of Magnesium,...........................
cotton, 1 1/2 grains more to the ounce than for portrait collodion. Pure Spirits of Wood Naphtha, 1/2 ounce to 16 ounces of collodion.
By using the above collodion, a negative can be exposed for thirty minutes, without any of the usual defects which are caused by a long exposure. - Old Argenttum.
When we arrive at a point where we intend to work, I immediately unstrap the tent and set it up, whilst my assistant collects a few stones to keep it steady; and whilst I am arranging my bath and chemicals in the tent, my assistant runs to fill his cans with water at the nearest source. By the time he returns I am ready to coat a plate (which I always do inside the tent), and, as the plate is getting ready, I place my camera ready to receive it. If it is a subject we are attempting which can be taken instantaneously, I use my six-inch focus lenses with a five-eighth inch stop, and expose by removing and replacing the cap of the lens as quickly as possible; but if it is a subject requiring a long exposure, I make a guess for the first plate, and, from long habit, generally succeed in hitting it pretty exactly. In spring, the actinic property of light appears to be very active, and it is only then that I have succeeded in getting passable instantaneous pictures. Early in the season views of buildings may be taken with a small stop in from two to ten seconds, and landscapes with trees in from five to fifteen seconds; but by the month of August and September I find free and help yourself But you are a photographer, and you know the capacity of your art is limited You must therefore practise self- denial, and take only what photography will give you. and what it will secure for you well. And this thought brings to mind the size and extent of the view to be taken.
314. A knowledge of the principles of as essential to the photographer outside of the studio as to the one who makes portraits only, and therefore much of the instructions given in Lesson A will found useful when prosecuting this delightful branch of photogaphy.
For the education of the eye, the balancing of the lines, contrast, choice of position, composition, Light and shade, and all such essentials, are quite from thirty to sixty-six seconds are required for must landscape views, and instantaneous exposures are of no use except for clouds and water. The plate being exposed, I get myself •hut up in the tent, and develop in the usual way, by dashing on the solution as quickly as possible, and moving about the plate to prevent stains. If it is an instantaneous view, all the details should come up slowly and distinctly; but I keep on moving the plates for two or three minutes, so as to get all that I can up before washing off the developer. This I do carefully and slowly, and as the negative in this stage is very thin in deposit, I pour from my dropping - bottle a small stream of nitrate of silver along the side of the plate, and let it flow over the whole surface before dashing on a fresh dose of developing solution, keeping the plate moving as usual. When this has acted for a minute or so I wash it off again very carefully, and repeat the process sometimes three or four times, if necessary, until the requisite printing density is attained; then, after a slight washing, I bring it outside the tent, wash thoroughly, and fix with cyanide of potassium. If the plate has a long exposure with a small stop, I find one redevelopment generally enough; but if the plate looks too thin after fixing, I sometimes take it into the tent and redevelop a second time. The cyanide, however, must be well washed off, otherwise there is danger of getting a reddish deposit upon the shadows. - George "Washington Wilson.
Never study economy in lenses, apparatus, etc. Never attempt any subject if the light be not suitable, as, however good the picture (or rather, I should say, the negative) may appear, it always disappoints one afterwards. Never focus carelessly. Very much depends on this. As a rule, it is a good plan to focus some central object in the view. For interiors especially this is a most important matter, and sometimes difficult. It is a good dodge to fasten up some large type - the heading of a newspaper, for instance - in a central position. This gives one a good chance of getting a sharp picture. Never use any but the best patent plate, which, by-the-by, do not clean with anything but alcohol, as tripoli, etc., only adds another evil to the bath. Never waste time in doctoring an old bath. Make a new one, and this as simply as possible, thirty - five grains of silver to each ounce of water; add a little old collodion, filter, and it is ready for immediate use. (I have always found that the ordinary nitrate of silver answers every purpose.) Never, after securing one good negative, leave the ground till you have tried for a duplicate, which is often better. The greatest secret in the negative process, so my mind, is a properly-timed exposure; herein lies the great art of photography, and makes a difference between a picture and a photograph. If you are required to drag out your child, he only looks sullen when he appears. - Frank M. Good.