198. Never allow yourself to grow into the habit of careless manipulation with the expectancy of " making it up " in retouching. Make the very best negative you can first and then improve its delicacy by retouchthe color into the tint of the negative. By this means there have been two tones added to the scale. Now, taking the shadows, I find they are too much spread, and come too abruptly up to the lights; in fact, that numbers four, five, and six of the scale are missing. Now, working from the lights, and using less color as I get nearer the deepest shadow, I supply the tones missing. I have now a negative that will be perfect both in harmony and gradation.

Another negative has been over-exposed, and the print wants depth and vigor. As we cannot take out shadows, we must add color, to build up the lights to sufficient strength to allow the shadows to print deep enough. This is done in the same way as in the former case, putting on the highest lights very strong and working from them.

And now a word of caution: Do not use much gum in the color; if possible do without it altogether, for if gum is used, and the printer is not very careful, the silver on the face of the paper will come off upon the retouching, and, darkening with every exposure, will eventually stop the light out altogether, and white spots upon the face are the consequence. This can be avoided by warming the negative and paper before putting them together. - George Croughton.

If there is a crooked nose, try and straighten it by making the high-light appear as it would if the nose were straight; cut the corners of the mouth; lighten the shadow under the eyes; fill up the sunken checks; modify any unfortunate wrinkles; sharpen the eyes by intensifying the white and drawing the line of the upper and lower lids. Now proceed to smooth the complexion, but be careful not to smooth all the roundness out of the picture; see that you do not reduce the high-lights too much by bringing up the shadows and halftones. But if there appears to be a flattening of the face, judiciously intensify the highlights; avoid, of course, too great a distribution of the high-lights, which will give the pic-ture a glistening or choppy effect. One of the greatest things in retouching, and one that requires considerable practice to attain, is an artistic touch. By this I mean so manipulating the pencil as to produce that transparent and peachy texture which may be observed in a fine water-color or india-ink picture. This effect is produced by a series of hatches done in a perfectly true and free manner, each stroke of the pencil being put exactly where it belongs, and not overlapping its neighbor, and producing that spotty and unquiet effect so objectionable to the educated eye. Do not take the pencil, and start in with the purpose of laboriously stippling the whole negative, regardless of what comes in the way, whether it be light or shadow, so that the picture comes out as if it had been sand-papered. Such a manner of working produces nothing but a tame and insipid effect, and has been the cause of most of the objections to retouching. - N.H. Busky.

196. Retouching cannot produce a perfect picture from a really bad negative; and yet, nevertheless, there are photographers who, before retouching was generally used, worked ing. For such purposes only should this power be used. Retouching is not "making smooth." You want a delicate play of half-tone, light, and shade preserved over the face, and no retouching should ever be allowed to cover it up.

199. The appliances needed are a retouching-frame, pencils, brushes, some crimsQn-lake and Prussian blue color, a cake of Gihon's "Opaque," a brush for each of these, and a magnifying-glass. With their judicious use by careful hands, and with feeling for the work, negatives can generally be helped in their printing qualities to a pleasing degree. They may also be spoiled to a hopeless degree, if the appliances are not carefully used.

with the greatest ambition to produce the very best work, have now become careless, " as all that can be helped by retouching." To such, instead of improvement, it is a drawback, and they must reform, or eventually be superseded by the more zealous and careful ones of the craft. A competent retoucher should be acquainted with the general anatomical features of the face, a slight knowledge of drawing at least, and a thorough understanding of the effect of light and shade, that when working, none of those soft shades and little wrinkles which characterize the face are erased, thereby destroying the likeness, and causing the picture to appear flat. In working up a negative, never overdo it. This is the greatest mistake, and one generally practised; the face in such work appearing like the smooth, stretched head of a drum, or in disagreeable splotches, termed chalky. Another method is to produce what is called eggshell surface, the whole appearing as speckled as the surface of a guinea-egg reduced. This is the most objectionable, as it entirely misrepresents the surface of the skin, and yet some artists take special pains to produce such pictures, which, to any one of artistic taste, must seem ridiculous. The right manner is to remove glaring imperfections, or hard shadows, and to regulate disagreeable features in such a manner that the marks of the pencil do not show in strokes or dots on the finished print. - Robert Morgeneier.

199. I have at hand a cake of water-color, called neutral tint. Upon a piece of china (porcelain) plate drop about two drops of clean water. Now take the cake between the thumb and finger and rub one end of said cake a very short time in those drops of water, and a .sufficient quantity of the color will be deposited upon the white plate to last a long time. Do not attempt to use it until the water has dried out of it, which consumes very little time. Now provide yourself with a two-ounce wide-mouth bottle; half fill it with water, and set it upon the table near the white plate with color on it. You will also need two camel's-hair pencils, with long handles, and a cake of Gihon's "Opaque." Let's see now; is there anything else needed? Yes, you need a painter's rest-stick. To do this well, your hand must be perfectly steady, and at the same time flexible. You must have a stick of some sort, and this is the best. - I. B. Webster.