books



previous page: The Fundamentals of Photography | by C. E. K. Mees
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Photo Lighting | by Felix Raymer

Photographics: A Series Of Lessons | by Edward L. Wilson



Photography grows so rapidly, and so continuously widens its usefulness, that an occasional lesson-book must be issued in order that the working votaries of the art may keep at least alongside. During an intimate connection with it for over twenty years, nearly eighteen of which have been expended in the very whirl of its progress, - indeed, with an earnest shoulder at the wheel,- I have preferred to assist my colleagues to do the business of book- making, rather than attempt it myself, owing to the very profound sense I have always had of the responsibility and of the magnitude of the undertaking. The time, it seems to me, has come, however. when I must speak out, and no longer neglect to take my share in this matter. What follows, then, is the result of my efforts. It is for those who read such productions to decide how satisfactorily (or otherwise) I have executed the work.

TitlePhotographics: A Series Of Lessons
AuthorEdward L. Wilson
PublisherEdward L. Wilson
Year1881
Copyright1881, Edward L. Wilson
AmazonWilson's Photographics: A Series Of Lessons/a>

Accompanied By Notes, On All The Processes Which Are Needful In The Art Of Photography.

By Edward L. Wilson, Editor Of The "Philadelphia Photographer," - Photographic Mosaics," Et&

Edward L. Wilson

Wilson's

Photographics A Series Of Lessons 2

The camera is mightier than the pen or the pencil

Photographics A Series Of Lessons 3

To My Excellent Friend, Washington Irving Adams, In Acknowledgment Of The Modest And Unostentatious Way In Which He Has Devoted Himself, For Over Twenty-Five Tears, To The Growth Of American Photography, By Securing And Providing The Wherewithal To Produce The Best Results In The Best And Easiest Wat. This Book Is Inscribed In The Name Of, And For, The Whole Craft, By The Author,

-Preface
Photography grows so rapidly, and so continuously widens its usefulness, that an occasional lesson-book must be issued in order that the working votaries of the art may keep at least alongside. During...
-Introduction
When the Divine Master had created the heaven and the earth, He said, let there be light: and there was light. Then man was made, who by the genius given him promulgated the fine arts. But, as ...
-Authorities Quoted In This Volume
Akers, Charles. Albee, M. H. Anderson, D. H. Anderson. Elbert. Andres. Mons. Anthony. H. T. Argentum. Old. Bachrach, D.,JR. Baker, W.J. Beattie, John. Bedford, William. Benecke, R. Berkley, Herbert...
-Illustrations
Phototypes Portrait of the Author,....................Frontispiece Portraits of Miss Adelaide Detchon (eleven), facing,........ .....76 Photoengravings And Wood - Cuts. Pace Line Points...
-Lesson A. Treatment Of The Subject
1. The one thing which the photographer needs most to consider with greatest care, is the treatment of the subject which comes before him. This he cannot always select; and he has but little time, ...
-Treatment Of The Subject. Part 2
5. Photography is born, and, like a Joseph among his brethren,asserts itself, and demands a place.Its youthful hand is laid upon the glorious circle, and admittance asked. It is denied, and effort mad...
-Treatment Of The Subject. Part 3
9. When a person appears before a photographer for a portrait, it his mind is fraught with the culture which he needs, it will flow from him in generous fulness, like a spring, as if by inspiration, j...
-Treatment Of The Subject. Part 4
Enlarge upon this bymaking and imitating other forms. 13.Every figure or form holds within it, more or leas, portions of a triangle, square, or circle. In order, therefore, to tit the eye for the p...
-Treatment Of The Subject. Part 5
16. Lines also vary according as they are situated above or below the eye of the observer. To prove this,hold up a piece of glass on which a series of lines have been drawn, radiating from the ce...
-20. Angles
Angles. What has been said more immediately applies to parallel perspective; so named from all the lines which intersect those running to the point of sight being parallel with the base line. When, ho...
-Angles. Continued
This can readily be illustrated with your lens - tube 23. The application of these principles is easy to everyone who knows how to operate a camera. And in applying them, remember that the base upo...
-31. Circles
Circles. A glance now at what has been said under this head, considering how many curved lines then are in the drawing it will naturally suggest itself, that a thorough knowledge of bow those curved l...
-Circles. Part 2
35. A row of columns will diminish as they are- drawn true to. lineal perspective, but it is this quality of light to which they are indebted for their effect upon the eye. Also, two angles may occupy...
-Circles. Part 3
38.Quackery has but too much power. But one thing it cannot do, it cannot keep us thinking the worst it the best;For the moment it may mislead, but only the best will command enduring approval. 8o we ...
-Circles. Part 4
42. Concealing the art is one of its greatest beauties; and be best can accomplish that who can discover it under all its disguises. I ought, however, to caution the young artist, on this head, not to...
-Circles. Part 5
48.. Having demonstrated what is meant by composition, a few of its leading forms will now be explained and illustrated; and while this done, it is not to be supposed that it is desirable to compel, a...
-Circles. Part 6
51. Many artists, when composing on this principle, especially in landscape pieces, so arrange the cloud lines that they form a balance by running counter to the lines in the composition proper, as sh...
-Circles. Part 7
56. To explain this point more fully, an example is given, The Expulsion of Hagar, by G. Flink, with the pyramidal lines running through This art of composition is a part of photography, just as ...
-Circles. Part 8
59. Likewise with a group, do not have each figure placed at equal distance, nor all looking in the same direc-n, unless, indeed, to tell the story, andl even then variety can be obtained by varying t...
-Circles. Part 9
It is so wonderfully full of suggestion that it is given here as a study, more especially in the arrangement of accessories. Look into it well, and see how wondrously the artist has been influenced by...
-64. Circular Composition
Circular Composition. Having now endeavored to explain and illustrate the angular and pyramidal forms of composition, it is desired to draw your attention to the circular form. It will be found the st...
-Circular Composition. Part 2
69. The accompanying wood-cut is a copy of one of Raphael's draw-ings,at the margin of which is the following memorandum: It is to be observed that the first thing to be con-sidered in an historical ...
-Circular Composition. Part 3
74. The first thing to be noticed is, that when the sun is abroad in a landscape, the most characteristic feature to be observed is the decided. sharp, well - defined shadows, and in proportion as the...
-Circular Composition. Part 4
77. In the foregoing remarks, your attention has been drawn outside the studio, and to many this may seem of little practical value as regards their every-day work. But it is not so, for the same prin...
-Circular Composition. Part 5
1, like nature herself. And some of the best heads of Rembrandt, fond as he was of shadow tricks, are painted in this broad and sunny way. These great artists studied to give the sum of human life - n...
-Circular Composition. Part 6
84. The results which light and shade may produce are very many. but the principal ones generally sought for are relief, harmony, and breadth. By the first we are enabled, so far as the camera, lens, ...
-Circular Composition. Part 7
86. A few explanations further, using imaginary pictures, but trying to make them plain to you. Let us imagine ourselves in a railway tunnel or cave, say twenty feet from the entrance, and looking out...
-Circular Composition. Part 8
Fig. 24. 90. It is hardly necessary to observe that I do not advocate such violent contrasts as would destroy all transparency in shadows, or all detail in the lights. But I do maintain that th...
-Circular Composition. Part 9
93. I am considering the pose of my sitter and the lighting. I judge that the dark space behind will absorb or obliterate the dark side of the sitter, and I cannot well put there a light, permanent sc...
-Circular Composition. Part 10
97. What is learned by such hard study is not apt to leave one, but will influence him in his daily work for good or bad; therefore be taught rightly. A few final hints on light and shade may be usefu...
-Circular Composition. Part 11
100. The preceding pages have been devoted more especially to the treatment of the 'portrait subject, although some of the illustrations have pointed somewhat to work out of doors, necessarily, as the...
-Lesson B. The Needful Apparatus
101. The choice of apparatus and materials with which to work should have the wisest attention in photography. If good results are to be secured, then the wherewithal to produce them of the best quali...
-107. How To Tell A Good Camera
How To Tell A Good Camera. As a usual thing, the modern American camera of the best quality is assuredly all right at the time of purchase. It may be well, however, to know how to test its quality. ...
-108. Care Of The Camera
Care Of The Camera. Once possessed camera, learn to take excellent care of it. It is not made abuse, neither should it be expected to stand combat with the elements like a plough or a mowing-machine. ...
-110. Other Articles Needed
Other Articles Needed. We have us provided now with the apparatus required to make a photograph. For portraiture, various other articles are needed before we can enter the studio for work. Among these...
-Lesson C. The Objective, Or Lens
111. Perhaps the most important of all the apparatus needed by the photographer in this work is the objective, or lens. It should be selected with the greatest care, though, indeed, our opticians now ...
-The Objective, Or Lens. Part 2
113. A brief description of the various forms, and an idea of what they are intended accomplish, will therefore be all that it is neceaaary to give here, so often have the lines and principles and for...
-The Objective, Or Lens. Part 3
116. If a lens be found faulty in this respect, it should be returned to the seller, Indeed, in these days there is no reason why photographer should manage with a Lens in the least bit defective. M...
-The Objective, Or Lens. Part 4
Test seventh, for marginal definition, conducted with the newspaper as above, by focussing as sharply as possible the letters that came on the outside of the field. A was nowhere with B in this test. ...
-Lesson D. The Dark Room
121. The dark - room for the manipulations of the plate should be convenient to the glass studio, so located that it can be thoroughly ventilated at top and floor, and kept of even temperature all the...
-124. Requisites For The Dark Room
Requisites For The Dark - Room. The dark - room is, or should be, the operator's pride, Hither he sends forth the wondrous mysteries which are to win him fortune and fame, and all depends upon his man...
-Lesson E. Preparation Of The Glass
126. Too much ears cannot be given to the selection of glass for photographic me. It should be flat, clean, and free from scratches, hubbles, and rust Fortunately, it is not difficult to find such in ...
-129. The Collodion
The Collodion. Collodion is a mixture of alcohol, ether, py-roxvlin or gun - cotton, and sundry iodides and bromides, which are sometimess called salts. When of proper consistency it is of the thick...
-180. Collodion For Hot Weather
Collodion For Hot Weather. Ether........................................ 10 ounces. Alcohol..................................... 12 ...
-Collodion For Hot Weather. Continued
Iodid eof Potassium............................................................... 166 grains. Iodide of Cadmium.................................................
-136. The Sensitizer
The Sensitizer. To render the collodion film sensitive to the light, it must be immersed in a solution formed of nitrate of silver crystals and water. The water must be pure, and the silver free from ...
-The Sensitizer. Continued
138. The desire for greater rapidity has been one largely in the minds of photographers always. This is all right enough, so long as good qualities and necessary ones in the negative are not sacrifice...
-189. Development
Development. Photographers who aim at good work, and at ease in getting through it, are recommended to use a saturated solution of iron for the;r developer. It saves a great deal of time in making up ...
-142. The Fixing Solution
The Fixing Solution. Still, the beautiful, delicate image which the developer brings forth would be fugitive, and disappear when exposed to the light, were not a fourth solution appealed to to fix it....
-143. The Intensifier
The Intensifier. We now have the four prime solutions or mixtures with which to make negatives; but as variations in light, temperature, atmosphere, and subject cause the chemicals to vary in their ac...
-The Intensifier. Continued
Instead of pyrogallic acid solution, I have, for some time past, at the suggestion of Dr. Vogel, employed the ordinary developer for the purpose of intensifying negatives. This is prepared of ...
-147. Castor-Oil In Negative Varnish
Castor-Oil In Negative Varnish. Varnish made after the following formula will never check nor split on the negative. Alcohol, 2 quarts. White Lac, ...
-149. Collodionizing
Collodionizing. With a stock of albumenized plates before us, we now proceed to make some negatives. In a collodion pourer at our right hand is our collodion. We seize the glass plate between the thu...
-150. Sensitizing
Sensitizing. The plate is now slowly and gradually lowered into the sensitizing solution, taking care not to stop it in the Least until it is thoroughly covered, lest streaks occur upon it. It may be ...
-151. Development
Development. Open the shutter of the dark - slide, tip it towards you with the right hand, and seize the plate by the left upper corner with the left hand, holding it horizontally. Having prepared ...
-152. Fixing
Fixing. The plate is now thoroughly washed and then placed in a tray containing the fixing solution. Should it be a properly exposed negative, all the yellow iodide unacted upon by the light will have...
-153. Intensifying
Intensifying. It should be the effort of the manipulator to so time his negatives in the camera as not to be compelled to resort to intensification. It is a bad habit to get into. The best results are...
-154. Varnishing
Varnishing. By any convenient method heat the negative gently and evenly, until the hand may be borne upon it without pain. Now. from the varnish-bottle, pour upon the centre of the plate a pool of va...
-153. Intensifier
Intensifier. This term is used to denote those substances which, when applied to a negative, serve to increase the actinic opacity of the deposit already formed. One class of intensifies acts by incre...
-Lesson H. Manipulatory Miseries
157. From what has been written of photographic manipulation thus far, it would seem to be all clear sailing. But it is not. Troubles innumerable occur continually - daily - which baffle all our exper...
-158. Fogging
Fogging. When a precipitate is thrown down over the entire plate by the action of the developer, so as to obscure, in the deepest shadows, the transparency of the glass when looked through, that preci...
-Fogging. Part 2
With certain kinds of developers there will form, after a lapse of twenty, fifty, or sometimes of sixty or eighty seconds, on the surface of the liquid floating figures of a description without doubt ...
-Fogging. Part 3
162. The value of permanganate of potash for rectifying disordered negative baths and printing baths has received much confirmation during the past year. A correspondent of of the journals describes h...
-Fogging. Part 4
To fuse a bath pour the bath into one-fourth its volume of water, and filter out the precipitated iodide; place the solution into an evaporating-dish on the stove, and evaporate to dryness, without ne...
-Fogging. Part 5
Two solutions are prepared as follows: A.- Citric Acid,........................................................................... 10 grammes. Distilled Wa...
-Fogging. Part 6
Saturated Solution of Iron,................................... 4 ounces Methylated Spirt,........................................................ 4...
-Fogging. Part 7
If it should not work as sensitive as new collodion, add one drop of aqua ammonia to each ounce of collodion as you use it. - J. R. Clemons. You will find in practice that a soft, spongy collodion ...
-Fogging. Part 8
174. The best rule for development, if the exposure has been right, is to proceed with it until the image fully appears, appearing slowly. If the image flashes out immediately upon the application of ...
-Fogging. Part 9
Of developers I cannot say very much, except to stronghly recommend adding glycerin instead of alcohol, or using half alcohol and glycerin when the bath is greasy. Glycerin gives such a command over t...
-177. Oily Lines
Oily Lines. 1. Lifting the plate out of the nitrate hath before it has been immersed sufficiently long to be thoroughly wetted, or before the ether upon the surface has been washed away. 2. Redipping ...
-180. To Find The Cause Of Pinholes
To Find The Cause Of Pinholes. Pour one ounce of the bath into a glass graduate, and add, slowly, a drachm at a time of pure water to the solution. If, on adding one or two drachms of water, the solut...
-182. Black And White Negatives Without Half - Tones
Black And White Negatives Without Half - Tones. Such are caused by under - exposure; by the contamination of the nitrate bath after long use; by using a collodion that is too old and red; too much aci...
-183. Flatness And Want Of Contrast
Flatness And Want Of Contrast. This may be caused by overexposure; by using too large a quantity of developer, thereby washing and add ice for the day; the whole to be covered with a top hinged just b...
-Flatness And Want Of Contrast. Part 2
186. The second trial alluded to is known as weakness of the films, and is caused most generally from over - exposure. A bath too strong for the collodion used, or a bath that is weak; collodion ...
-Flatness And Want Of Contrast. Part 3
187. Permanganate of potash is much used, but concerning it, one thing, however, can bo said, namely, that it lacks force in its operations upon a negative, does not thicken, as it were, bo ...
-Flatness And Want Of Contrast. Part 4
Smith, of Bath, sent to me for enlargement, and he has kindly given me his formula, which works admirably, the only drawback being a slight liability to stain; the increase of power is obtained solely...
-Flatness And Want Of Contrast. Part 5
190. When the film blisters, the plate should bo laid, varnished side downwards, upon a vessel filled with equal parts of ether and alcohol, when the film would he softened and lie down again flat. ...
-Flatness And Want Of Contrast. Part 6
192. I have kept silver stains from my hands for the past six or seven years by the use of pumice - stone. Take a piece the size of an egg, and file it smooth on all sides. When through the day's ...
-Lesson I. Retouching The Negative
195. The practice of retouching the negative is too general now to use any argument against it.Its legitimate object is to remove natural blemishes in the .skin, and to help to preserve the half - ...
-Retouching The Negative. Part 2
198. Never allow yourself to grow into the habit of careless manipulation with the expectancy of making it up in retouching. Make the very best negative you can first and then improve its ...
-Retouching The Negative. Part 3
With the articles that I have mentioned, first-class touching can be done by care and patient practice. One great advantage of the water-color over the pencil is the facility with which the work can b...
-Retouching The Negative. Part 4
201. Of the varied motions of a retouching-machine an actual drawing by the machines has been made. The annexed cut shows a very much enlarged copy of such a drawing. 1 is the horizontal; 2, the ...
-Lesson J. The Glass Studio
203. In order to secure the best effects in portraiture, it is necessary to have a covered enclosure free from the action of the elements, and where the light may be controlled to suit the purpose. ...
-The Glass Studio. Part 2
Fig .40. 206. The glazing of the glass portions is of considerable importance. The brand of glass known as the best double - thick American is suitable, though some give preference to heavy r...
-The Glass Studio. Part 3
thus suffer a derangement or loss of some portion of its actinism, which is probably the reason that in practice the quality of light is found better which has passed through a circular form of glazed...
-The Glass Studio. Part 4
210 The best form and pitch of the studio is not agreed upon universally. A great many plans have been given in the magazines. The annexed drawing is one of many which have appeared in the ...
-The Glass Studio. Part 5
212. It does not cost much more to build a skylight that never leaks than one that is leaking all the time. The form of guard should he made in this shape. It will come down (the rain) and run to ...
-The Glass Studio. Part 6
Fig. 53. Section Of Skylight dealer In wire - cloth and get enough wire - cloth, of one - half-inch mesh, to cover the frame. Stretch tight on frame, then paint white on both sides, and place o...
-Lesson K. Accessories And Light
221. Taste must be exercised In the choice and use of backgrounds and accessories by the would-be superior portraitist There can be no rule to guide him in their selection, except his judgment and ...
-Accessories And Light. Part 2
what class it belonged; what impression it was capable of making; what passion it was calculated to arouse. The sedate, the solemn, the severe, the awful, the terrible, the pleasing, the solitary, the...
-Accessories And Light. Part 3
226. As a rule, backgrounds are made to be upon a frame with their whole surface equidistant from the camera. Another form, recommended by Mons. Adam Salomon, the renowned master photo - artist and ...
-Accessories And Light. Part 4
When pretty strong toning is desired, two or three mixtures of color must be made. Mix kaolin and dextrin in equal parts and knead the mixture with sufficient water to impart to it the consistency of ...
-Accessories And Light. Part 5
Fig. 55. In order to prevent the backgrounds taking up too much room, and to be able to change and shift them easily, a shifting-wagon may be employed, which is a strong frame of slats, cont...
-Accessories And Light. Part 6
232. Let us now give our attention to the drapery. The arranging of the draperies depends much upon the quality of the stuff. Thin, light stuff produces smaller folds, and plaits in greater quantity ...
-Accessories And Light. Part 7
The same principle holds good in looking upward; for instance, the head slightly raised, with the eyes about half as much more, may express spiritual contemplation, adoration, supplication, etc., acco...
-Lesson L. Managing The Model
237. The studio may be constructed in the most skilful, workmanlike, and expensive manner, and yet be wasted upon its owner, unless he be possessed of skill sufficient to manage it. Experience, ...
-Managing The Model. Part 2
240.And when her royal highness, the - model, presents herself to me for a pose, how am I to know how best to treat her? queries the photographer mentally. Here again comes good your intuitions - ...
-Managing The Model. Part 3
242.The time of exposure must next be considered.Too much impatience is indulged in here. Take enough exposure, whenever the subject in hand will permit it. Do not under time, if you can help it. To ...
-Lesson M. Printing On Albumen Paper
244. After the negative is entirely finished, the important operation of printing proofs from it next oocupies our attention. And right here. the student needs to call up his best thoughts and ...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 2
For those who have regularly fitted up printing-rooms this is not intended, but to those who are still printing by the cold, open window, it will surely be a boon. Havings platform outside of my win...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 3
The strength of the positive bath must be regulated by the strength of the negative. The stronger the negative, the weaker the bath may be. For a moderately strong negative, the bath may be between si...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 4
249. For silvering the paper, provide a table, somewhat larger than the sheet of paper, covered with velveteen. Upon this the paper is laid, and the albumen surface is briskly rubbed with a bunch of ...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 5
Fig.60. 260. Keep the paper in a damp, cool place, from twelve to twenty - four hoars before silvering. This applies to every brand of albumen paper. It gives greater ease in silvering-The pape...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 6
268. To silver paper that will keep, make a solution of nitrate of silver, thirty to forty grains strong; add to this two grains of citric acid to each ounce. After the citric acid is men surface of ...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 7
Silver prints must be thoroughly washed from the free nitrate of silver before toning. If this injunction is obeyed in each and every case, the prints after being finished will keep pure and white, an...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 8
Toning - bath for purple or black tone: Water, one quart; gold, three grains; sal soda, saturated solution, a few drops. Print deep and tone to the color you wish. For a brown tone, take one quart of ...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 9
260. I take two drachms of nitric acid and three drachms of hydrochloric acid; in that I can dissolve a five - dollar gold piece. That is pure enough; the copper is an advantage rather than a ...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 10
268. Several years since I published a simple and effectual method of cleaning the prints of hyposulphite of soda by employing the acetate or nitrate of lead; whether this process would leave the ...
-Printing On Albumen Paper. Part 11
Fig.66. Both in printing and toning stereoscopic pictures see that both ends are of the same depth and color. It looks exceedingly bad to see one end lighter than the other, or one end a deeper...
-Lesson N. Printing On Plain Paper
266. Before albumenized paper came into use, all paper photographs were printed upon what is yet known as plain or salted paper. It is still used for enlargements, copies, and for such pictures M ...
-Lesson O. General Remarks On Printing
270. The instructions given on printing, thus far, are by no means to be considered exhaustive. An effort has been made to inform you only as to the best known methods for producing ordinary ...
-Lesson P. Printing On Various Surfaces
273. As stated in Lesson O, photographic prints may be made upon all sorts of surfaces. A very pretty application is to decorate the corners of handkerchiefs with the portrait of the owner, or giver, ...
-273. To Print On Linen
To Print On Linen. Make a salting solution of two grains of chloride of ammonium to every ounce of water. Make a sizing solution of Water,....................... 1 ounce. ...
-274. Collodion For Porcelain Pictures
Collodion For Porcelain Pictures. 1. - Negative Gun - Cotton,.................. 60 grains Alcohol,.................. 2 ounces ...
-Lesson Q. Printing Perplexities
275. A few further indications as to the imperfections in prints, may not bo out of place. The same faults wen - found, the same tribula-tions troubled the printer, in the early days of silver ...
-Printing Perplexities. Part 2
278. Red marbled lines, and a quantity o f minute red specks after toning, hut not visible before, are seen on the prints. There is no remedy for such paper, It is badly albumenised; the lines are ...
-Printing Perplexities. Part 3
283. Yellowness of the prints when finished. Several causes will pro-duce this, such as leaving the prints in the hypo longer than necessary to number of sheets suited; and I have frequently, for ...
-Printing Perplexities. Part 4
remedy, which is to have a sufficient number of dishes, keep them perfectly clean, and particularly keep the hands clean. 285. Metallic spots. Tbere is no remedy for these. They are caused principa...
-Printing Perplexities. Part 5
If you use alum, do not tone so much, and use less gold, as the alum makes the prints two or three shades darker than the gold and hypo leaves them. - A. Hesler. 291. There are various other perple...
-Lesson R. Art In Printing
292. As has already been suggested, there is a wide field for the exercise of artistic taste in photographic printing, and the Lesson A is quite as deserving of the study of the printer as of the ...
-Art In Printing. Part 2
To get bold prints from flat negatives, cut a piece of tracing-paper about the size of the negative; with a little dab of paste in each corner, attach it to the back of the negative. With a No. 2 Fab...
-Art In Printing. Part 3
296. Photographic prints as a usual thing are divided into two styles - . the plain and the vignetted. The former are - such as are printed from the negative without masking or obscuration of any ...
-Art In Printing. Part 4
298. Like human beings, again, negatives wear out from much use. If the film becomes torn, it is easily remedied by the application of a spot of a sharp knife, the oval is cut neatly out, care ...
-Lesson S. Mounting And Finishing
299. After all, the operator and the printer are at the mercy of the mounter and the finisher, unless that person also puts heart in the work, and labors with the rest to produce beautifully finished ...
-Mounting And Finishing. Part 2
Pure Virgin Wax,.................. 500 grammes Gum Elemi,.................. 10 grammes Benzole,.................. 200...
-Mounting And Finishing. Part 3
I find the following to serve admirably as a lubricator: A. Paraffine, eight drachms; benzine, ten ounce. B. In a mortar grind gum ammoniacum thirty grains, in alcohol suffi-cient to prevent the gu...
-Lesson T. Photography Outside
305. The suggestions which follow are for the practice of landscape or out-door photography especially, though embracing what is helpful also in making architectural subjects, interiors, groups of ...
-Photography Outside. Part 2
A photographer who owns a number of lenses and wants to determine which one to use for any particular view, may do so when visiting the spot beforehand without lenses or camera, and with very little t...
-Photography Outside. Part 3
For further hints on apparatus and the lens subject, refer to Lessons B and C. The annexed drawing represents one of the camera-boxes of the American Optical Company, known as the 76 Pocket 6x8 Dry...
-Photography Outside. Part 4
There should he no conditions to make this last rule objectionable. Great stress has been laid on the rare good judgment which should carry development to just the proper point and then check it. In m...
-Photography Outside. Part 5
311. There are still other methods of preserving the plate for a long time between the time of coating and developing it. One of the best consists in the addition of a few drops of water to the ...
-Photography Outside. Part 6
moving the whole time, and directly the greasiness has disappeared, drain, and put it into the slide, with a piece of wet yellow calico behind it. If it is an interior that is taken on this plate, the...
-Photography Outside. Part 7
314. When you come down to real, legitimate landscape work, then you must study. There is always a time of day when the light is better on any subject than another, and this you should make your ...
-Photography Outside. Part 8
As a general thing, there is much more interest in a short view than there is in a long one, which comprehends a large amount of territory. There may he instances where distance lends enchantment to ...
-Photography Outside. Part 9
320. And after all these points are looked after comes the all-important subject of light. Upon it depends all. It not only secures the brilliancy of the picture, but it even changes the forms and ...
-Photography Outside. Part 10
323. The addition of clouds to a landscape cannot be too highly valued, but, alas! photography is too often unable to secure them with the average ment, perfect and complete gradations of tone, ...
-Photography Outside. Part 11
that matters little if the light is of proper quality. Admirable views may be made in a rain storm - if the sun shines. 324. In conclusion, a word as to the dark-tent. Any light enclosure set at a ...
-Lesson U. Bromo-Gelatin Emulsion Work
325. It has long been the hope of the photographer, and the ambition of the photo - inventor, to secure some means of producing photographic negatives without the aid of the nitrate - bath, which ...
-328. Preparation Of The Emulsion
Preparation Of The Emulsion. In the dark-room, lighted by ruby-colored glass, melt separately, over a water-bath, using as mild a collodion as rapid as gelatin. I have not the time to make the experim...
-Preparation Of The Emulsion. Part 2
Fig. 77. In order to prevent misunderstanding, I repeat, that the method of preparing exceedingly sensitive emulsions by boiling and by treatment with ammonia give, as I have shown in my work, ...
-Preparation Of The Emulsion. Part 3
Fig. 79. For washing the emulsion many plans are recommended, but they all are on the same principle - a means whereby the emulsion can soak awhile and then drain and again soak and drain. The ...
-329. Manner Of Spreading The Gelatin On The Plate
Manner Of Spreading The Gelatin On The Plate. First cover the plates which are to receive the gelatin with a thin coating; of albumen: Water,...............................................
-Manner Of Spreading The Gelatin On The Plate. Continued
In coating, pour the emulsion out of the bottle into a glass measure (I have several sixes), using a drachm to every ten square inches of surface; thus, a ten by eight will take eight drachms or one o...
-330. Exposure
Exposure. The length of the exposure varies considerably according to the sensitiveness of the emulsion; generally, one or two seconds are sufficient to take a well-lighted view. In the glass-house, w...
-Exposure. Part 2
This cannot be safely done with a light that does not affect the solar spectrum; but it can be done with plenty of light of the right kind. Suit your development to your subject - your cartridge to yo...
-Exposure. Part 3
Bath 1. - Water,...................... 100 parts. Bichloride of Mercury,.................... 2 Bromide of Ammonium...............
-333. Pyrogallic Acid Developer
Pyrogallic Acid Developer. Prepare the following: solutions: 1. - Distilled Water,.................... 500 parts. Pyrogallic Acid,.................... ...
-Pyrogallic Acid Developer. Part 2
No.1. Pyrogallic Acid,.................... 1 ounce. Glycerin,.................... 1 ounce Methylated Alcohol,......................
-Pyrogallic Acid Developer. Part 3
All these wrinkles and dodges in practice come in particularly good now as we are entering this new arena of practice, and if we would have abundant success, we must be on the alert for every sign a...
-Pyrogallic Acid Developer. Part 4
334. If the exposure has been too short, that is to say, if in thirty seconds the high - lights do not yet appear, add drop by drop, and with the greatest precaution a little of the solution A. If ...
-335. Retouching And Varnishing
Retouching And Varnishing. Ordinarily, the plate, well treated as I have just indicated, and especially when placed in the ten per cent, alum solution, may be readily retouched without using gum. If, ...
-336. Printing The Positive
Printing The Positive. The gelatin negative being more opaque than the collodion negative, in order to judge finally the degree of intensity necessary to give it to obtain a good positive print, it is...
-Printing The Positive. Part 2
339. In the manufacture of the emulsion, sufficient importance is not given to the kind of bromide used. All bromides do not give the same 339. A few hints: Should there be any signs of frilling ...
-Printing The Positive. Part 3
341. It will be seen that in all the preceding instructions in this lesson, the utmost diligent must be excercised in securing the entire absence of white - light during the preparation of the plates ...
-Printing The Positive. Part 4
Fig. 80. Fig. 90 is a sketch of a lantern for the dark - room, a, lamp; b, ruby globe; C, white common chimney; d, tin chimney; a, plaster of Paris Joint; b, annular space for draught; e, tin c...
-Printing The Positive. Part 5
Fig 92 Fig. 93 Fig. 94. ...
-Lesson V. Vogel's Collodion Emulsion
344. With all its advantages, the bromo - gelatin process is not entirely all that is wanted to take the place of the wet or bath method of working, and the inventive portion of the craft is still ...
-344. Preliminary Preparation Of The Plates
Preliminary Preparation Of The Plates. The glass plates require a coating in order to make the emulsion adhere quite fast, and for this purpose a solution of caoutchouc or chrome gelatin is used. A. C...
-Lesson W. Enlargements And Lantern Slides
845. Solar-camera printing is used only as a means of making enlarged pictures and is not adapted for small work, owing to the coarsenees of the results and the slowness of their production. The ...
-Enlargements And Lantern Slides. Part 2
348. In some localities the photographer is blessed with very little sun- 347. A salting solution for cartoon paper may be made as follows: Boiled Milk,........................... ...
-Enlargements And Lantern Slides. Part 3
Pyrogallic Acid,........................... 90 grains. Water,........................... 32 Acetic Acid,.........................
-Enlargements And Lantern Slides. Part 4
Alum,...................................................... 1 1/2 ounces. Bichloride of Mercury,........................... 1 1/2 ...
-Enlargements And Lantern Slides. Part 5
351. My invention is for tracing or sketching for crayon or other portraits. It can be used by any one, and for enlarging any object that can be attached to the top, which is to contain the picture, ...
-Enlargements And Lantern Slides. Part 6
I have fallen back on a modification of the old wet process, borrowing from different workers the formula employed. The bath, which should be sunned and filtered before adding the acids, is composed o...
-Enlargements And Lantern Slides. Part 7
In preparing the albumen, take seventeen newly-laid eggs (eggs a week old are the best), break them, and carefully separate the yolks from the whites; take out the germs (treadles). Weigh out five gra...
-Lesson X. Phototypes, Platinotypes, And Collodion Transfers
355. There are a great many methods of printing photographic pictures by mechanical means. A negative is made in about the usual way, and if the prints are to appear right and left as in nature, it ...
-355. Apparatus For Reversing The Negative
Apparatus For Reversing The Negative. The increasing employment of late of reversed negatives (for the carbon, artotype, asphaltum, and other processes) induced us to construct an apparatus with which...
-356. Basis
Basis. As a basis, employ a polished glass plate, three lines in thickness, or may be thicker. These plates are polished mat on one side by rubbing them with finely levigated emery powder; the powder ...
-357. First Preparation Of The Plates
First Preparation Of The Plates. Take twenty - five parts of white of egg, forty-five parts of distilled water, and eight parts of solution of soda water-glass, such as can be obtained in commerce. Th...
-358. Second Preparation
Second Preparation. To coat the plates with gelatin, they must first of all be thoroughly rinsed with cold water, best under a tap, but without the prepared side being touched. They are then dried, an...
-Second Preparation. Part 2
Fig. 104 There is another kind of dryer made by Mr. S. Rogers, described in the almanac of the British Journal of Photography for 1870. As Fig. 105 shows, a burner, c, furnishes a current of ho...
-Second Preparation. Part 3
Fig. 106.
-359. The Exposure
The Exposure. This may be three - quarters of an hour in the shade, in the case of a good negative, or a quarter of an hour in the sun. Diffused Light gives the best half - tones. After exposure, the ...
-360. Printing
Printing. The plate is fixed by means of plaster of Paris to a lithographic stone, and printed by the aid of a lithographic press. The essential. You can dispense with it, and get along without infrin...
-360. The Printing
The Printing. The most delicate work in the application of the process for impression* made with fatty ink consists in printing from the plate when it is in a perfect condition to receive the ink in t...
-361. Varnishing And Mounting Phototype Prints Printed Without Margins
Varnishing And Mounting Phototype Prints Printed Without Margins. Phototype prints that are to be mounted on card- or bristol - board, may be allowed to retain their mat appearance, or they may someti...
-Varnishing And Mounting Phototype Prints Printed Without Margins. Part 2
362. The instructions for working the platinotype process are given now in detail. A general description of the process is not necessary. It is in brief as follows: The sensitized paper, containing ...
-Varnishing And Mounting Prints Without Margins. Part 3
363. In some parts of Europe, and to a more limited degree in America, pictures known as collodion transfers (given also the trade name of megatype) have been introduced with some success. A ...
-Varnishing And Mounting Prints Without Margins. Part 4
Developer. - Pyrogallic Acid,..................... 3 grains. Citric Acid,.................. 6 Water...
-Varnishing And Mounting Prints Without Margins. Part 5
I prefer the lime or oxyhydrogen light for the lime, as it is of a fixed quantity; it soon pays for itself in preventing loss from under- or over-exposure. You have only to find the right time once...
-Lesson Y. Wastes And Their Worth
367. So much of the precious metals is used in photography that it i important to guard against waste as much as possible. This waste occurs in two ways: First, by attempting to sensitize both ...
-Lesson Z. Metrical Measuring
368. Had the publication of this work been delayed, say two years longer, perhaps it would then be possible to ignore the old systems of weights and measures entirely, and substitute those after the ...
-Lesson ZZ. Concluding Confab
369. Now, good fellows, everything must end, and this work must go the way of all things - it must end. All through I have endeavored to drop myself as much as possible and make the earnest ones of ...
-Appendix To The Chautauqua Edition
870. Since the publication of the preceding pages, the art of photography has made some tremendous strides. The manufacture and manipulation of bromo-gelatine-emulsion dry plates has been very much ...
-871. Developers
Developers. Among the many developers which have been suggested, the pyro and the oxalate formulae have the most advocates, and they are modified according to the taste and notions ...
-871. Simple Developer
Simple Developer. Take 1 ounce of crystalline carbonate of soda, and 2 ounces of sulphite of soda, and dissolve in 64 ounces of water; this stock solution keeps well. To develop, take enough of the...
-372. Films
Films. Among the substitutes offered for glass, negative. films, with or without a paper or other support, have met with the most favor Both solutions are to be kept in well - stoppered bottles. A ...
-Films. Part 2
When fixed, which is judged by transmitted light, place in your washing-tank, or a dish, cardboard and upon sheets of insoluble gelatine and collodion combined; but, as yet, such have not been brought...
-Films. Part 3
Thus much for negative making. Films fix quicker than glass dry plates, and the completion of the operation can he ascertained by tin - even, translucent appearance from the back while lying in the...
-373. Bromide Papers
Bromide Papers. The methods of printing, as detailed in Lessons M to S, inclusive, all remain about the same, with little or no changes. The new departure has been in the direction of permanent bromid...
-374. Positives
Positives. Photographic positives, such as transparencies for windows and for the magic lantern, are very popular, and continue to be made by methods given in Lesson W. A few more hints are given here...









TOP
previous page: The Fundamentals of Photography | by C. E. K. Mees
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Photo Lighting | by Felix Raymer