316. Continuous Background

Continuous Background. When photographing small articles requiring a continuous background, a sheet of cream wrapping-paper may be used, laid over the back of a chair and across the top of a table, with a curve in the paper as it extends from the table to the chair, thus avoiding any dividing line between the background and the base upon which the object is arranged. An example of this work is shown in Illustration No. 62. In Illustration No. 61 is shown the same picture which has been worked up by the engraver's artist ready for the catalog, showing the outline to the best advantage. It also shows the manner in which the engraver has vignetted the cut, giving the picture a neater appearance.

317. Hand-Work

Hand-Work. Although it is customary to have hand-work on illustrations of this character done by artists employed by the engravers, yet if the photographer knows how to do it, he has an opportunity of adding many extra dollars to his bank account. In doing this work the photographer has an advantage over the artist, for considerable of the building up, strengthening and outlining can be done on the negative itself. There are some parts of the work, of course, that will need to be made on the print, such as the blending, etc., which is usually done with the air-brush. When background designs are changed, the work is done on the print, but the general outlining and accentuating, evening up of tones, etc., can be done on the negative.

318. All white lines on the object should appear white in the finished print. Outlines of the object, where they contrast against black, should be white. Portions contrasting against white should be black. This is clearly shown in Illustrations Nos. 63 and 64. In Illustration No. 64 is shown a picture of a Multigraph machine, the print being made direct from the negative, unaltered. In No. 63 is shown a reproduction from the same negative after the hand-work had been applied.

319. The first work to be done is to locally reduce the strong lights, giving them a more uniform tone and obtaining all detail possible in all parts of the negative. Then the entire machine is blocked out, giving a pure white background, after which a print is made from the negative and mounted on a piece of smooth cardboard. After the print becomes dry, it is worked up and strengthened. The first work to be done is the strengthening of the outlines. In Illustration No. 63 we began by strengthening the edge of the plate running across the top of the machine. This we outlined with a draftsman's ruling pen. The rubber pad, on which the machine rests, is also outlined in black.

320. Bright portions of machines and all metallic parts of objects throw reflected light, which latter is often objectionable in photographs, and they must be softened in the print if they were not properly treated on the original. The air-brush is the most satisfactory accessory to employ in accomplishing this result. These bright surfaces are sprayed with a fine spray of ink, thus giving them an even surface. Shadows in the sheets of paper used as a background are also softened with the air-brush. All such parts are sprayed over rather promiscuously but evenly, and finally delicate high-lights are cut out by erasing the ink with a rubber eraser. The nickeled parts are strengthened by slightly outlining the high-lights with Chinese white.

321. The most important point to remember is, that all outlines and distinct parts or features must be perfectly clear and show exactly what they are. The lettering must be sharp, for it is extremely important that they be clearly reproduced. Black letters are best worked up in the final print, while white ones, although they may also be accentuated with white ink in a similar manner, should be chalked up on the object itself before the exposure is made.

322. If any parts of an object reflect too much light they may be easily dulled by rubbing a little putty over them. By properly applying putty and chalk to the original object, and by giving careful attention to the lighting, very little hand-work will be required on the final print, other than to outline the important parts and to accentuate straight white lines on the object itself.

323. A regular draftsman's ruling pen, which may be obtained at any artist's supply store, should be secured for making straight lines. The liquid water-proof India ink and a liquid Chinese white ink (Letterine), should both be procured, as they are the best for use with the ruling pen.

324. A right-angled triangle made of celluloid (also procurable at any stationary store), should be used as a guide for the pen. On account of its transparency it is possible to see through this triangle, which enables one to observe what is directly underneath. In this way the whole of the picture is unobstructed and no errors are likely to be made, which would be often the case if an opaque rule were employed. An advantage of the ruling pen is, that the lines may be made any width desired by simply varying the distance between its two points by means of the

Catalog Illustrating 090073

Illustration No. 63

Catalog Illustration (Vignetted Cut)

See Paragraph 318

Catalog Illustrating 090074

Illustration No. 64

Catalog Illustration (Plain Photograph)

See Paragraph 318

Catalog Illustrating 090075

Illustration No. 65

Catalog Illustration (Vignetted Cut)

See Paragraph 327

Catalog Illustrating 090076

Illustration No. 66

Catalog Illustration (Plain Photograph)

See Paragraph 327

Catalog Illustrating 090077

Illustration no. 07 Catalog Illustration (Vignetted Cut) See Paragraph 327

Catalog Illustrating 090078

Illustration No. 68

Catalog Illustration (Plain Photograph)

See Paragraph 327

Catalog Illustrating 090079

Illustration No. 69

Catalog Illustration (Vignetted Cut)

See Paragraph 327

Catalog Illustrating 090080

Illustration No. 70

Catalog Illustration (Plain Photograph)

See Paragraph 327 thumb-screw. The pen should always be held in a perfectly vertical position, in order that the edges of the lines may be smooth and not ragged.