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Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography Vol 6-10| by J. B. Schriever



Back in the 70's of the last century - not so many years ago, after all - photography was in its infancy and but little practiced by the general public. The few professionals who made it their regular business prepared most of their own materials, plates, papers, etc., and the results were frequently very uncertain, as they depended largely upon local conditions, and on the skill and knowledge of the operator. Photography as applied today to the arts and sciences was unheard of. Now, there is hardly a science, industry, or enterprise of any account undertaken that photography, in some form or other, does not enter into. It is invaluable as an aid to research, study, and to the diffusion of knowledge...

TitleComplete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography. Vol 6-10
AuthorJ. B. Schriever
PublisherAmerican School Of Art And Photography
Year1909
Copyright1909, American School Of Art And Photography
AmazonComplete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography

J. B. Schriever, Editor-in-Chief popular Edition, Published By American School of Art and Photography

American School Of Art And Photography

Volume VI. At-Home Portraiture, Flashlight, Interiors, Lenses

Volume VII. Studio Portraiture. Part I

Volume VIII. Studio Portraiture. Part II

Volume IX. Commercial, Press, Scientific Photography

Volume X. Negative Retouching, Etching and Modeling. Encyclopedic Index. Glossary

Part I: Volume 6: At-Home Portraiture, Flashlight, Interiors, Lenses

-Volume VI. At-Home Portraiture, Flashlight, Interiors, Lenses. Preface
1. In gathering together the material for this volume, the editors have not lost sight of the fact that not alone the amateur, but the professional also, is frequently desirous of making portraits in ...
-Chapter I. Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences
10. Introduction Introduction. Probably one of the most difficult subjects to handle by means of photography is the securing of technically correct interiors. It is an extremely fascinating branch of...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 2
20. Tripod Tripod. The tripod should be firm and adjustable to customary limits of height. In interior photography, the necessary exposure being of considerable length, there must be absolutely no da...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 3
26. Backed Plates Backed Plates. The backing of ordinary dry plates is one of the most suitable methods to employ to overcome halation where non-halation plates cannot be obtained. This backing must ...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 4
31. Arrangement Arrangement. The arrangement of various objects in the room is of extreme importance; but, as previously stated, there are times when it is very desirable to leave the furniture and o...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 5
39. Dodging During Exposure Dodging During Exposure. Sometimes a little dodging may be successfully resorted to by permitting the figures (which, of course, must be arranged in good light) to remain ...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 6
44. Source Of Light - Location Source Of Light - Location. It is generally advisable to have the main source of light come from back of the camera. In this way strong shadows will be done away with a...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 7
50. Ascertaining The Exposure Ascertaining The Exposure. Cover your head and camera with the focusing cloth, to exclude all light from the ground-glass excepting that which comes through the lens. Op...
-Interior Photography. Part I. Photographing Interiors Of Residences. Part 8
59. Under-Exposure Under-Exposure. More failures are due to underexposure of interiors than from any other cause. This is the case with beginners especially. They imagine that, with the sun shining o...
-Chapter II. Mathematical Method Of Measuring Light
62. Judging Strength Of Light Judging Strength Of Light. One must not judge the strength of light by the appearance of the light entering the window; on the contrary, estimate the effect of this ligh...
-Mathematical Method Of Measuring Light. Continued
67. Actual Illuminating Space Actual Illuminating Space. First measure approximately the size of the window space used, or if more than one window is used combine the measurements of all. If a portio...
-Chapter III. Interior Photography. Part II. Developing - Examples
72. Development Development. Even though all other operations have been performed in the most careful manner, improper development may ruin what would otherwise be an excellent interior negative. The...
-Interior Photography. Part II. Developing - Examples. Part 2
78. Three Examples Three Examples. Illustration No. 1 shows a very simply arranged dining-room, one that may be found in the average home. The lens used in making this interior was a Bausch & Lomb-Ze...
-Interior Photography. Part II. Developing - Examples. Part 3
85. Practice Work Practice Work. For first experiments select an interior view of any convenient room - the office, studio, or any living-room in the home. The dining-room is a good room to select, i...
-Chapter IV. Interior Photography. Part III. Controlling Halation By Special Development
96. Admitting Windows Into The View Admitting Windows Into The View. The admission of windows into the view frequently enhances the appearance of a room, giving it a more natural and cheerful appeara...
-Interior Photography. Part III. Controlling Halation By Special Development. Part 2
101. Selection Of View Point Selection Of View Point. To properly photograph a room in which windows are to be admitted into the view, the view point should be selected where the illumination comes f...
-Controlling Halation By Special Development. Part 3
106. Even Illumination Even Illumination. By observing the light at different hours of the day, in any room, you will notice that the entire room is more evenly illuminated at some hours than at othe...
-Chapter V. Difficulties - Interior Photography
113. Securing Even Illumination Securing Even Illumination. If the light is all taken from one side of a room, to fully illuminate the far distant portions, the angle of the light must lead toward th...
-Difficulties - Interior Photography. Continued
119. Overcoming Halation Overcoming Halation. The cause of halation is fully explained in this lesson. The use of non-halation plates will aid in overcoming this difficulty. A good plan is to over-ex...
-Chapter VI. At-Home Portraiture With Home Surroundings
124. Introduction Introduction. The making of portraits in the home is by no means a difficult task, if one proceeds in a careful manner and without any attempt at haste. Attention must be given to e...
-At-Home Portraiture With Home Surroundings. Part 2
130. Principal Considerations Principal Considerations. The first and most important consideration in making pictures amid home surroundings is proper illumination. The room and accessories desired i...
-At-Home Portraiture With Home Surroundings. Part 3
137. Window Portraits Window Portraits. Very interesting At-home portraits may be made close to a window. In all such cases a portion of the window should be included in the picture space. Ordinary l...
-Chapter VII. Difficulties - At-Home Portraiture With Home Surroundings
142. Illuminating The Subject Illuminating The Subject. While this is one of the chief obstacles to overcome when making portraits amid home surroundings, yet the average illumination in residences i...
-Chapter VIII. At-Home Portraiture. Part I. Introduction
147. Money-Making Opportunities Money-Making Opportunities. The first portraits made by the light of an ordinary home window were undertaken by the amateur, who attempted to secure the likeness of th...
-Chapter IX. At-Home Portraiture. Part II. Controlling The Light
157. Why is it impossible to photograph a subject, with proper portrait effects, out in the open in broad daylight? Why is it imperative that any particular form of lighting or a special method of arr...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part II. Controlling The Light. Continued
163. Light Falling Properly Light Falling Properly. If the light falls on the subject at an angle midway between these two extremes, it illuminates both of the eyes, does away with the straight shado...
-Chapter X. At-Home Portraiture. Part III. General Information
170. Studio Unnecessary Studio Unnecessary. Of course it is understood that a studio is not required for At-home portraiture. The carefully arranged lightings of the studio do not, as a rule, produce...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part III. General Information. Continued
175. Importance Of Omitting The Unnecessary Importance Of Omitting The Unnecessary. When making pictures amid home surroundings, it is as important to study what not to take as what to include in the...
-Chapter XI. At-Home Portraiture. Part IV. Backgrounds
179. Many photographers lose sight of the part played by the background in successful portraiture. They seem to be content to use what happens to be behind the sitter at the time, without further effo...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part IV. Backgrounds. Continued
184. Plain Background Plain Background. Plain backgrounds may be made from an ordinary dark-colored window shade - usually the green or deep slate color is the most suitable. By attaching the window ...
-Chapter XII. At-Home Portraiture. Part V. Making General Preparations
188. Selecting A Window Selecting A Window. Before attempting to make At-home portraits, it is necessary to have a few pieces of apparatus to assist in securing proper lighting effects. The first ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part V. Making General Preparations. Part 2
192. Preparing The Window Preparing The Window. In preparing the window it is necessary to provide a diffusing screen. This diffusing screen is really a light-controlling screen and should be ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part V. Making General Preparations. Part 3
198. Substitute For Painted Background Substitute For Painted Background. If a background is not among your possessions, substitute an ordinary plain dark colored curtain or rug, which may be ...
-Chapter XIII. At-Home Portraiture. Part VI. Plain Portrait Lighting
204. The Subject The Subject. We will now take it for granted that all the necessary arrangements have been made, and that you are in possession of a well appointed home studio. For the beginner an ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VI. Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 2
211. Attention To Details Attention To Details. It is very essential that the arms and hands receive special attention, even in the making of a bust portrait. The height of the chin, which, to a ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VI. Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 3
217. Placing The Background Placing The Background. Properly illuminating the background is almost as essential as lighting the subject. Place the background at least 3 feet from the subject, and ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VI. Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 4
220. Exposure Exposure. The greatest difficulty experienced in home portraiture is to comprehend the vast difference between the density of light in and out of doors. The variation of exposure is so ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VI. Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 5
225. Developing Developing. After securing a negative which you think is exposed approximately correct, it is advisable to start the development of the plate in normal developer, watching it closely ...
-Chapter XIV. At-Home Portraiture. Part VII. Posing Details
232. The first essential in all portrait work is to secure proper effects of lighting; therefore the student should become thoroughly familiar with the instruction given in the preceding chapter ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VII. Posing Details. Part 2
237. Long, Prominent Noses Long, Prominent Noses. As a rule, this type of nose predominates with tall, slender people, and care must be exercised not to have the camera at an elevation above the ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VII. Posing Details. Part 3
244. The Eyes The Eyes. Without regard to the position assumed by the subject, the eyes must lead the face under all circumstances. If the face is turned to the right the eyes should lead a little ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VII. Posing Details. Part 4
251. Hair Hair. Frequently a patron is displeased with proofs, owing to what they think is faulty arrangement of the hair. If the subject is a woman, careful attention should be paid to the back ...
-Chapter XV. At-Home Portraiture. Part VIII. Important General Notes
255. Lens Lens. The ordinary hand-camera lens may be employed for At-home Portraiture, but will be found to work rather slow. Beginners who do not care to purchase a better lens for this work will ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VIII. Important General Notes. Part 2
262. Catch-Lights In The Eyes Catch-Lights In The Eyes. The catch-lights in the eyes being an exact reproduction of the source of light, are really the key to the lighting. If they are in proper ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part VIII. Important General Notes. Part 3
266. Vignetter Vignetter. A vignetter is an appliance placed before the lens, which is used for cutting off undesirable foreground. In portraiture it is principally used for bust and two-third ...
-Chapter XVI. At-Home Portraiture
Difficulties - Plain Portrait Lighting. 271. Handling The Diffusing Screen Handling The Diffusing Screen. A good plan is to experiment with the diffusing screen whenever it is possible to obtain a s...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part 2
276. Background Too Sharp Background Too Sharp. This difficulty occurs when rectilinear lenses are employed, as they are constructed in such a manner as to possess extreme depth of focus. In all ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part 3
282. Eyes Of Subject Appear Staring Eyes Of Subject Appear Staring. This difficulty is frequently caused by the subject gazing too long at the same object during the preliminaries of posing and ...
-Chapter XVII. At-Home Portraiture. Part IX. Rembrandt Lighting
286. Introduction Introduction. Preceding chapters have dealt with the photographing of subjects with Broad Lighting, the greater portion of the face being illuminated. Rembrandt Lightings are made, ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part IX. Rembrandt Lighting. Part 2
292. Strength Of Light Strength Of Light. Different brands of plates require softer or harsher lighting of the subject; for instance, Seed, Stanley and Standard plates develop with a tendency toward ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part IX. Rembrandt Lighting. Part 3
299. Background Background. It is quite essential that you employ the proper background; one that is dark and gradually blended or a slightly clouded ground is recommended. This style of ground can ...
-Chapter XVIII. At-Home Portraiture. Part X. Rembrandt Lighting - Detailed Instruction
302. As only a small source of light is required in making front or two-thirds views of Rembrandt Lightings, it is fully as easy to produce these effects in the home as under a studio skylight. It ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part X. Rembrandt Lighting - Detailed Instruction. Part 2
308. Light For Results Light For Results. When the subject is dressed in white, if the light were not restrained as it falls upon the drapery, the highly illuminated drapery would affect the ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part X. Rembrandt Lighting - Detailed Instruction. Part 3
313. Background Background. Dark backgrounds should be employed. Where a graded ground is used - one in which the tone blends from dark to light - it should be so placed that the dark end will ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part X. Rembrandt Lighting - Detailed Instruction. Part 4
320. Side View Rembrandt Portrait Side View Rembrandt Portrait. Rembrandt portraits, showing either a side or a two-thirds view of the face, are very popular for window lightings. They are made with ...
-Chapter XIX. At-Home Portraiture
Difficulties - Rembrandt Lighting. 326. Securing Sufficient Top Light Securing Sufficient Top Light. As the windows in many homes are quite low it may be impossible to secure a sufficient amount of ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Continued
330. Lack Of Detail In Shadows Lack Of Detail In Shadows. The improper handling of the diffusing curtains to diffuse the light and the improper use of the reflecting screen will cause lack of detail ...
-Chapter XX. At-Home Portraiture. Part XI. Broad Profile Lighting
336. Introduction Introduction. Not all faces are suitable for profile lighting, for it is necessary that the outline of the profile of the face, to be pleasing, possess graceful curves. There are ...
-At-Home Portraiture. Part XI. Broad Profile Lighting. Continued
342. Pose Pose. The first and most important matter for consideration is the way in which the head of the subject is posed. A tip of the head too far back or too far forward, leaning too much to the ...
-Part XII. Rembrandt Profile Lighting
348. The Lighting The Lighting. A Rembrandt Profile Lighting is a profile view of the face, the outline being the only portion having a strong high-light. The rest of the face is in shadow except on ...
-Part XII. Rembrandt Profile Lighting. Part 2
352. Proper Subjects For Profile Portraits Proper Subjects For Profile Portraits. A suitable subject may be determined in the following manner. Arrange your subject in profile pose and view the ...
-Part XII. Rembrandt Profile Lighting. Part 3
355. The View Of The Face The View Of The Face. There are also times, as previously stated, where one side of the face presents a better profile than the other, for the reason that the qualities ...
-Part XII. Rembrandt Profile Lighting. Part 4
360. The Reflecting Screen The Reflecting Screen. You will find more use for the reflecting screen in making Rembrandt Profile Lightings than in any other style of lighting, for you have a larger ...
-Part XII. Rembrandt Profile Lighting. Part 5
364. Developing Developing. There is no difference in developing Rembrandt portraits from any other style of lighting, for the difference in the illumination must be made up in the exposure; ...
-Chapter XXI. Baby And Child Photography
372. Introduction Introduction. The actual cash returns for those who make a business of photographing children in their homes is a most attractive feature; while to those who desire to take up the ...
-Baby And Child Photography. Continued
378. Lighting Lighting. As previously stated, supply all the light possible, and while ordinarily a room with a northern exposure would be preferred, yet where the sunlight falls upon the window, ...
-Chapter XXII. Baby And Child Photography
Detailed Instruction. 382. When photographing children there are many little details that are commonly overlooked, yet are very important for successful portraiture. While you may have good illuminat...
-Baby And Child Photography. Part 2
387. Spacing Spacing. When observing the image on the ground-glass always provide for sufficient space in front of the face, thus supplying space for the subject to look into. If placed in a ...
-Baby And Child Photography. Part 3
394. Dress Dress. Children photographed in the home should be dressed in keeping with their surroundings. If they are to be photographed with toys, they will naturally look better in their romping ...
-Chapter XXIII. Children's Portraits In Drapery
399. Children from two to twelve years of age lend themselves admirably to the securing of drapery pictures. The photographer with some idea of lines and composition (which are quite essential for ...
-Children's Portraits In Drapery. Continued
407. Lighting Lighting. The lighting is very important in drapery portraits for the light must, in a way, fall across the subject, and not fall from the front. A cross light will give snap and ...
-Chapter XXIV. Photographing Children Outdoors
416. Introduction Introduction. Some exceedingly interesting pictures may be made of children in the open light. A child picking flowers, playing with a garden rake, digging in the sand, attempting ...
-Chapter XXV. Firelight Effects By Daylight
422. Introduction Introduction. In addition to the regular forms of lighting, there is an endless number of striking and odd effects which may be produced by daylight as well as artificial light. ...
-Firelight Effects By Daylight. Continued
426. Exposure Exposure. The exposure should be rather too little than too much, as sharp detail is wanted only on the face. A rather contrasty negative is best suited for this class of work. Of ...
-Chapter XXVI. Groups
433. Very large groups cannot be made in the home unless a large room with sufficient illumination can be had; therefore, it may be necessary for those who are compelled to work in small quarters to ...
-Groups. Part 2
444. Good Drawing Good Drawing. Good drawing is as essential in a group as in a single portrait. We have found that the pyramidal arrangement is very simple to handle and will produce the best ...
-Groups. Part 3
450. Backgrounds Backgrounds. Large portieres or curtains - provided that they are not too dark - make good backgrounds for group pictures. If extremely dark they prolong the exposure. Usually, ...
-Chapter XXVII. Difficulties - Groups
457. Arrangement Of Groups Arrangement Of Groups. Before attempting to pose figures in the form of groups, a very careful study should be made of the lesson, as well as of the group illustrations in ...
-Difficulties - Groups. Part 2
461. Arranging Large Groups Arranging Large Groups. In arranging large groups the ideas and the principles involved in handling small groups should be carried out. In fact you should select the ...
-Difficulties - Groups. Part 3
466. Correct Angle Of Light For All Subjects Correct Angle Of Light For All Subjects. If each individual subject was properly lighted as it was introduced into the group, the completed group, with ...
-Chapter XXVIII. General Flashlight Photography
472. Indoor Work With Magnesium And Flashlight Powders Indoor Work With Magnesium And Flashlight Powders. Photography by flashlight is now within the reach of all without danger, difficulty, or much ...
-General Flashlight Photography. Part 2
478. Flashlight Compounds Flashlight Compounds. It is not advisable for anyone to make their own mixtures, for if the process be not thoroughly understood and proper care exercised, there is great ...
-General Flashlight Photography. Part 3
481. Preparing The Fuse Preparing The Fuse. To prepare the fuse, where a flat pan is used, place a little cotton batting or absorbent cotton on the pan (a pan with a handle preferred), pour ...
-Chapter XXIX. Flashlight for Portraiture
486. Introduction Introduction. It often will be found inconvenient and practically impossible to secure a portrait lighting in the home on account of the location or size of the windows. It may be ...
-Flashlight for Portraiture. Part 2
494. Diffusing Screen Diffusing Screen. As the light from the flash-lamp is very concentrated, there is a strong tendency toward harshness. In portrait work, therefore, by the use of a cloth screen ...
-Flashlight for Portraiture. Part 3
500. Shading The Lens Shading The Lens. In extreme shadow lightings, or with full length figure positions, when a larger lens is used than is necessary to cut the size negative being made, the ...
-Flashlight for Portraiture. Part 4
507. Position Of The Light Position Of The Light. To properly illuminate a face, the light should all come from one source and should fall at an angle of about 45 degrees. 508. Plain Portrait ...
-Flashlight for Portraiture. Part 5
512. Stops Stops. top down only just enough to give sufficient sharpness. In portraiture use the lens wide open. If a group picture is being made, after having focused on the center member, it is ...
-Flashlight for Portraiture. Part 6
520. Smoke Smoke. All flash-powders produce some smoke and in making more than one flash the greatest care should be taken to see that the room is cleared of the smoke before making the second ...
-Chapter XXX. Groups And Interiors By Flashlight
522. Groups By Flashlight Groups By Flashlight. The flashlight will be found far better sometimes for making pictures of groups in the home than daylight, as it is very seldom possible to secure a ...
-Groups And Interiors By Flashlight. Part 2
530. Kind Of Flash Material Kind Of Flash Material. Pure magnesium ribbon is a very convenient and perfectly safe form of illuminant to employ for small views of still-life subjects, and after one ...
-Groups And Interiors By Flashlight. Part 3
534. Pure Magnesium Powder Pure Magnesium Powder. Pure magnesium powder ignited with a special lamp is generally employed for illuminating interior photographs where figures are not included. The ...
-Chapter XXXI Difficulties - Flashlight Photography
541. Lighting Hard Lighting Hard. The flashlight was too concentrated, too near the center, and not sufficiently diffused. Diffuse the light through muslin or similar cloth stretched on a frame, or ...
-Chapter XXXII. Reflex Camera In Conjunction With Flashlamp
By M. J. Shiels. 552. Introduction Introduction. Serious workers frequently refuse to consider the hand-camera otherwise than suitable for recreative work, owing to the uncertainty of the results it...
-Reflex Camera In Conjunction With Flashlamp. Part 2
559. Advantages Of The Focal-Plane Shutter Advantages Of The Focal-Plane Shutter. The focal-plane shutter used on the Reflex allows the widest range of speed. Besides time exposures, it will give ...
-Reflex Camera In Conjunction With Flashlamp. Part 3
562. Flashlight Equipment Flashlight Equipment. Our illustration of this equipment shows how simple and portable is the whole device, and how well adapted it is to be taken to customers' residences ...
-Reflex Camera In Conjunction With Flashlamp. Part 4
567. Adjustment Of Release And Circuit Breaker Adjustment Of Release And Circuit Breaker. In order that the circuit breaker may be adjustable in height, the two slots C, C are cut in the vulcanite ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use
By S. Lawrence (Of the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y.) 572. The function of a photographic lens is to project upon the sensitive plate an image of some object or objects situated in fron...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 2
580. Dispersion Dispersion. But glass possesses at the same time another property which is a distinct disadvantage to the lens maker. A ray of sunlight falling on a prism of glass would be bent ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 3
583. Correction Of Chromatic Aberration Correction Of Chromatic Aberration. Readjustmerit of the plate for the plane of focus of the actinic rays - even though such a lens were perfectly ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 4
586. Forms Of Lenses Forms Of Lenses. Lenses are divided into two classes: positive or converging lenses which bend the rays toward the axis; negative or diverging lenses which bend the rays away ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 5
592. The Field Of The Lens The Field Of The Lens. The field of a lens may be defined as the surface (imaginary) on which the image is formed. This must not be confounded with the surface (sensitive ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 6
595. Circle Of Illumination Circle Of Illumination. The aperture of the lens being circular, the rays of light passing out from the lens form a cone of light, and the field of the lens is therefore ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 7
600. Covering Power Covering Power. The covering power of a lens depends on several factors - the area and the curvature or Fig. II flatness of its field, the area of critical definition (see ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 8
604. Evenness Of Illumination Evenness Of Illumination. Unevenness of illumination is an inherent fault in the old lenses. Outside of a more or less limited area in the center of the field, the ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 9
608. Equivalent Focus Equivalent Focus. If we could easily and accurately locate in any lens the point from which to measure, the exact focal length of the lens could easily be ascertained with ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 10
611. Conjugate Foci Conjugate Foci. For every distance between lens and object, there is a certain corresponding distance between lens and image. These distances are termed conjugate foci (...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 11
614. To Measure Focal Length To Measure Focal Length. The practical application of this method is varied. Say that we want to find out what is the focal length of our lens. We focus an object ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 12
618. Depth Of Focus Depth Of Focus. Depth of focus or depth of definition, in the popular meaning of those terms, is the property possessed by a lens of rendering at the same time sharp images of ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 13
620. Influence Of Focal Length On Depth Of Focus Influence Of Focal Length On Depth Of Focus. The influence of focal length on depth of focus is often either not at all understood, or entirely ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 13. Part 2
Fig. 21. 627. If the focal length - the distance of the plate from the lens - is different, the volume of light alone does not determine the speed, for the intensity, or concentration, of the light...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 13. Part 3
632. For example let us take two lenses of respectively 2 and 4 inches diameter and 6 and 12 inches focus. Their relative initial intensity as based on relative volume of light is as 2x2 and 4x4, or ...
-Photographic Lenses - Their Nature And Use. Part 14
648. Superiority Of Anastigmat Lenses Superiority Of Anastigmat Lenses. From what has already been said in explanation of spherical aberration, astigmatism, curvature and flatness of field, covering ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Why An Anastigmat Is Desirable
649. There are a great many photographers who possess, or who look forward to one day possessing, an anastigmat lens, who may not fully understand the special advantages of such an instrument. ...
-Why An Anastigmat Is Desirable. Part 2
654. Why The Margins Are Not Sharp Why The Margins Are Not Sharp. As we have previously indicated, the two defects in the rectilinear lens which render the marginal definition imperfect are ...
-Why An Anastigmat Is Desirable. Part 3
659. Size Of A Lens Size Of A Lens. Some beginners think because a certain lens includes more of a subject on the plate than others that a larger and more bulky instrument must be employed. A ...
-Why An Anastigmat Is Desirable. Part 4
663. Wide-Angle Lens Wide-Angle Lens. It should now appear quite clear to you that if a lens is to have great covering power its barrel must be short. In other words, the two glasses, the front and ...
-Chapter XXXV. Stops Or Diaphragms
670. The opening in a lens is its aperture. Anything that will give various sizes of openings for the admission of light may be termed a stop or diaphragm. 671. Stops and diaphragms, while used in ...
-Stops Or Diaphragms. Part 2
679. Comparative Exposures Comparative Exposures. With lenses numbered this way, and the exposure is given for any one diaphragm, the exposure for any other diaphragm may be easily ascertained. The ...
-Stops Or Diaphragms. Part 3
685. A Trial May Be Quite Valueless A Trial May Be Quite Valueless. Unless the photographer knows how much he has stopped down on account of the difference of distances in the subjects, and how much ...
-Chaptee XXXVI. Photographic Shutters
689. A shutter is a mechanical device so arranged that it protects the sensitive plate from the rays of light entering through the lens, but is capable of being opened and closed at the will of the ...
-Chaptee XXXVI. Photographic Shutters. Part 2
695. Focal Plane Shutter Focal Plane Shutter. The focal plane shutter is one which is placed directly in front of the sensitive plate, and is composed of an opaque cloth curtain or blind, each end ...
-Chaptee XXXVI. Photographic Shutters. Part 3
700. Efficiency Efficiency. When using this word in connection with an instantaneous shutter, it is understood to mean the relation between the light passed and the total time from the shutter ...
-Chaptee XXXVI. Photographic Shutters. Part 4
705. Multi-Speed Shutter Multi-Speed Shutter. A new form of between-the-lens shutter has been recently placed on the market, which gives the photographic worker one of the very highest types of ...
-Chaptee XXXVI. Photographic Shutters. Part 5
718. Focal Plane Shutters Focal Plane Shutters. The focal plane means the position that the plate should occupy for the picture upon it to be sharp; hence a focal plane shutter does not actually ...
-Chapter XXXVII. Bausch & Lomb Lenses
720. As leaders in the manufacture of photographic lenses and shutters, we mention the well-known name of the Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, whose extensive factory-is located at Rochester, N. Y. ...
-Bausch & Lomb Lenses. Part 2
728. Application Application. Hand Camera - Tessar is light and compact and may be fitted to any hand camera. In the shorter foci it is particularly adapted to use with cameras of fixed extension ...
-Bausch & Lomb Lenses. Part 3
735. Tessar Lens, Series I-C Tessar Lens, Series I-C. It has been found possible to increase the aperture without sacrificing brilliancy, definition and flatness of field, and the result is a new ...
-Bausch & Lomb Lenses. Part 4
762. Extra Rapid Universal Lens Extra Rapid Universal Lens. This lens is the most rapid of the rectilinear type, working as it does at a speed of f/6 and covering an angle of view of 70 degrees. ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Goerz Anastigmat Lenses
By the C. P. Goerz American Optical Company. 764. The introduction of anastigmat lenses may certainly be considered the most notable step in advance in the field of photographic optics made during th...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 2
778. On The Selection Of Lenses On The Selection Of Lenses. When it is desired to use a photographic lens for more than one kind of work, the selection of the most suitable objective becomes a ...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 3
783. Determining Focal Length Of Lens Suitable For Operating Rooms Of Stated Length Determining Focal Length Of Lens Suitable For Operating Rooms Of Stated Length. As it may be valuable to many ...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 3. Continued
794. It is convenient to have a practical standard for unity. An image of the same size as the original is a familiar case, and serves as such standard. By dividing the figures in the third column by ...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 4
799. Increase Of The Focal Distance Of The Lens Due To Different Distances Of The Object Increase Of The Focal Distance Of The Lens Due To Different Distances Of The Object. A certain distance ...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 5
803. Goerz Celor Goerz Celor. F. 4.5 - F. 5.5 (Series I B Extra Rapid Apochromatic). Special Objective for fastest instantaneous exposures, portraits in room and studio; enlargements and ...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 6
813. Characteristics Of Dagor Lenses Characteristics Of Dagor Lenses. The astigmatism is completely corrected, with the result that, even at full aperture, the image is as sharp at the edge as it is ...
-Goerz Anastigmat Lenses. Part 7
826. Focal Plane Shutter Focal Plane Shutter. The most important feature of the Goerz-Anschiitz Folding camera lies in the ingenious construction of the instantaneous shutter, which has recently ...
-Chapter XXXIX. Cooke Lenses
By Taylor, Taylor & Hobson, Ltd., New York City. 829. The Cooke Anastigmats differ from others, in that the lens consists of three glasses, and with this simple construction is combined a unique scre...
-Cooke Lenses. Part 2
836. Cooke Lens, Series III Cooke Lens, Series III. Full aperture F. 6.5. The Series III. lenses are the best for persons desiring all around anastigmats of the very highest grade. They are designed ...
-Cooke Lenses. Part 3
844. How To Preserve Lenses How To Preserve Lenses. Lenses should be kept in a pure, dry atmosphere, away from dust and damp. These conditions impair the perfect polish of a high-class instrument, ...
-Chapter XL. Voigtlander Lenses
860. During many years of productive activity, Voigt-lander & Sohn have not only furnished an endless number of lenses, all of the highest type of their times, commanding the highest prices of any ...
-Voigtlander Lenses. Part 2
865. Speed Speed. The best method of classifying lenses and the one actually adopted in practice, is based upon their power of transmitting a greater or less amount of light to the sensitive plate. ...
-Voigtlander Lenses. Part 3
871. Unsymmetrical Lenses Unsymmetrical Lenses. Unsymmetrical lenses, the single parts of which cannot be used independently, are Voigtländer's Heliar, Dynar and Portrait Lenses IA and I. These ...
-Voigtlander Lenses. Part 4
881. Astigmatism Astigmatism. We divide our lenses into anastig-mats and non-anastigmats. In view of the great superiority of anastigmats, we should explain that we continue to make and list non-...
-Chapter XLI. Portrait Lenses
897. The slowness of the average achromatic lens and its uncorrected defect of curvature renders it of little use for interior portrait work. The principal requirement of an ideal portrait lens is, ...
-Portrait Lenses. Part 2
909. The Diffusing System The Diffusing System. In the older types of portrait lenses the diffusing system is applied, but to adjust this system it has been necessary to remove the lens from the ...
-Portrait Lenses. Part 3
913. Distorted Perspectives Distorted Perspectives. Few photographers realize the disadvantages accompanying the use of a lens having a short focal length. The two illustrations (Illustrations Nos. ...
-Portrait Lenses. Part 4
918. Care Of Lens Care Of Lens. Care of the photographic lens in the studio is of the utmost importance, as it may be permanently injured by carelessness or lack of knowledge of the proper care to ...
-Chapter XLII. Telephotography
922. The size of the photographic image of an object depends first upon the size of the object; second, on its distance from the lens; and third, on the focal length of the lens employed. 923. The ...
-Telephotography. Continued
934. To Find Magnification Of A Telephoto System To Find Magnification Of A Telephoto System. To find the magnification of a telephoto system, divide the distance of the negative lens from the ...
-Chapter XLIII. Projecting And Enlarging
By W. L. Patterson Of the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y. 937. The optical principles of Projecting and Enlarging are practically the same. 938. Illuminant Illuminant. In the matter of...
-Projecting And Enlarging. Continued
942. Foci Of Condensers Foci Of Condensers. When two are combined the focus is one-half that given in table, measured from center of combination. These foci are considered correct for the size of ...
-Chapter XLIV. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Study No. 1. By Will H. Walker, Portland, Oreg. Subject, Nydia. This picture was made on a very bright day in the month of June. The picture was taken at 7 P. M. Lens used, Zeiss No. 7-A; focal leng...

Part II: Volume 7: Studio Portraiture. Part 1

-Volume VII. Studio Portraiture. Part I. Chapter I. Introduction
1. While the uses of the camera are practically unlimited, it is chiefly identified in the public mind to-day through its universal application to portraiture. Moreover, professional portraiture, gene...
-Volume VII. Studio Portraiture. Part I. Chapter I. Introduction. Continued
10. When a photographer begins, with the first touch, to bring his model into pose; when he selects his view point, and turns a fold of drapery, he is taking the first steps toward artistic achievemen...
-Chapter II. Skylights
20. Introduction Introduction. Much has been written in favor of and against various styles of skylights. Some recommend the single slant, others prefer the old style hip or double-slant light, while...
-Skylights. Part 2
26. Single Slant Skylight Single Slant Skylight. In Illustration No. 1, Fig. 2, we present a single slant light 12 ft. wide and 14 ft. high, the light beginning 3 ft. from the floor and slanting into...
-Skylights. Part 3
30. The Perpendicular Light The Perpendicular Light. In Illustration No. 1, Fig. 1, we present the perpendicular light. We question if any photographer would employ such a light from choice, in prefe...
-Chapter III. What Is Lighting?
36. Lighting is the art of reproducing the characteristics of the subject by the correct application of light and shade. It is necessary to have light to produce an effect on the sensitive plate, but ...
-Chapter IV. Controlling The Light
42. By controlling the light is meant the manipulation of the shades and curtains, also diffusing and reflecting screens, so as to control the volume of light as it falls upon the subject. In making p...
-Controlling The Light. Part 2
51. With the subject located at exactly the same point, yet the curtains properly arranged to control the angle of light upon the subject, giving top as well as side-light, and at the same time supply...
-Controlling The Light. Part 3
62. The angle of light is obtained by manipulating the opaque shades directly over the subject, while relief, roundness and atmosphere are controlled by the opaque shades farthest from the subject. Wi...
-Chapter V. Skylight Room Equipment
70. Diffusing Curtains Diffusing Curtains. The direct source of light frequently will be too harsh and you may wish to soften it; therefore, it is essential that the skylight be equipped with a set o...
-Skylight Room Equipment. Part 2
79. Reflector Reflector. In addition to being equipped to handle the direct source of light, it is essential to have some further means of controlling the light in the shadows, and for this purpose i...
-Skylight Room Equipment. Part 3
83. Camera And Stand Camera And Stand. While any regular 8 x 10 portrait camera and stand may be employed, we present in Illustration No. 4 a model studio outfit. An ideal studio camera is manufactur...
-Skylight Room Equipment. Part 4
88. Lens Lens. For portrait work it is advisable to have a regular portrait lens. There are many different kinds of portrait lenses on the market, all of which will produce very good results. Some in...
-Skylight Room Equipment. Part 5
91. Portrait Vignetter Portrait Vignetter. A vignetter is an attachment fitted to the camera, by means of which we can cut off or vignette away any portions of the figure not wanted in the picture. I...
-Skylight Room Equipment. Part 6
97. Placing The Head Rest Placing The Head Rest. When placing the head rest do not adjust it into place until you have obtained the proper position and lighting; then gently slip the rest back of the...
-Chapter VI. Composition In Portrait Photography
98. If the object of all portraiture by photography is, first of all, to secure a good likeness of the sitter, then the second is, to present it in an agreeable manner. Choice of stop, exposure, propo...
-Chapter VII. Plain Portrait Lighting
113. The most natural and characteristic features of an individual are best reproduced by having them fully illuminated. For this reason, the best of results in portraiture are obtained when that form...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 2
122. Applying The Diffusing Screen Applying The Diffusing Screen. The diffusing screen also serves as a secondary light controller. With the opaque shades on the skylight the angle of the volume of l...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 3
128. Position Of The Reflector Position Of The Reflector. The object of the reflector is to reflect the direct light, throwing it into the shadows, illuminating them and incidentally shortening the e...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 4
135. The Hair The Hair. With ladies, especially, there is another feature which needs particular attention, and that is the hair. It must lie quite smooth; i.e., there must be no protruding locks or ...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 5
140. Pose Of The Head Pose Of The Head. Although it is not necessary to pose subjects whose features are normal, it is, however, essential that strict attention be paid to the various features of the...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 6
144. Note Note. It must be understood that these rules regarding the direction of the eye pertain to Plain Portrait Lighting, and do not apply to extreme or odd positions and odd lightings or Genre w...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 7
149. Position Of The Subject Position Of The Subject. The position of the body will depend entirely upon the subject. If a fleshy person is being photographed it will be found desirable to lengthen t...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 8
152. Proper Height Of Camera Proper Height Of Camera. The height at which the camera is placed will depend upon the subject, but it may be taken as a general rule that the lens should be on a level w...
-Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 9
158. Making Exposure Making Exposure. After everything is ready do not hurry in making the exposure. Take time, yet do not work unduly slow, as the subject will likely become tired. Hurry only excite...
-Chapter VIII. Plain Portrait Lighting. General Summary
162. With the light correctly diffused and falling on the subject at the proper angle, and with the posing complete, you are practically ready to make the exposure. At this point, however, you should ...
-Chapter IX. Plain Portrait Profile Lighting
194. To secure a Broad Profile Lighting the subject is lighted in exactly the same manner as for the front or three-quarter view of the face. The camera, however, is brought around so that it will ...
-Chapter X. Plain Portrait Lighting-Practice Work
198. For practice work select an adult, preferably a lady wearing a light waist. Place her under one end of the light; usually on a line with the end of the side-light, and about nine feet from it, ...
-Chapter XI. Difficulties - Plain Portrait Lighting
205. Too Strong Top-Light Too Strong Top-Light. This is caused by the subject being seated too near the side-light; and possibly the top curtains are not pulled down far enough on the skylight. ...
-Difficulties - Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 2
209. Handling The Diffusing Screen Handling The Diffusing Screen. With a little experimenting any person may soon become able to properly handle the diffusing screen. The conditions under which each ...
-Difficulties - Plain Portrait Lighting. Part 3
213. Subject Closing Lips Too Tightly Subject Closing Lips Too Tightly. Never tell the subject to close or open the mouth. Rather converse with them and get them to answer some question; or, finally ...
-Chapter XII. Rembrandt Lighting
220. Rembrandt is a style of lighting in which the lights and shadows are quite sharply defined, and usually the greater portion of the face is in shadow. This style of lighting, founded on the ...
-Rembrandt Lighting. Part 2
229. Position Of The Subject Position Of The Subject. Refer to the floor plan, Illustration No. 15, and observe that the subject is placed a trifle nearer to the skylight than for Broad Lighting, ...
-Rembrandt Lighting. Part 3
239. Proper Lighting Proper Lighting. The strongest light should fall on the forehead, following down the bridge of the nose, and tipping the lips and chin. The nose should be the dividing line of ...
-Rembrandt Lighting. Part 4
245. Shielding The Lens Shielding The Lens. When making this style of lighting, the lens is pointed partly toward the light and there may be danger of reflection in the lens, which will cause a haze,...
-Chapter XIII. Rembrandt Profile Lighting
251. A second type of Rembrandt Lighting is one in which the head is photographed with the face to the side, or in profile, with eyes directed toward the light. The simplest method of procedure is to ...
-Rembrandt Profile Lighting. Continued
261. Suitable Profiles Suitable Profiles. Not all subjects are suitable for profile posing. Persons possessing a large hooked nose, receding forehead, or a receding chin, will never make a pleasing ...
-Chapter XIV. Difficulties - Regular And Profile Rembrandt Lighting
265. The difficulties which may be experienced in securing the proper angle of light, etc., for Rembrandt Lighting are exactly the same as with Plain Portrait Lighting. 266. Producing The Dividing ...
-Difficulties - Regular And Profile Rembrandt Lighting. Continued
271. Illuminating Background Illuminating Background. The background for profile portraits should be quite dark and, therefore, turned from the light The darkest portion of the ground should come ...
-Chapter XV. Hollinger Lighting
276. It was in the year 1898 that Professor Griffiths, Director of the Detroit Art Museum, in a lecture before the Photographers' Association of America, during their annual convention held at ...
-Hollinger Lighting. Part 2
284. Lighting The Subject Lighting The Subject. Refer to Illustration No. 24, and observe that the skylight is almost wide open, there being sufficient space beyond the end of the skylight to ...
-Hollinger Lighting. Part 3
290. Reflecting Screen Reflecting Screen. In using the reflector place it so that the light will fall upon the front of the face and blend gradually back toward the cheek and ear. To do this place ...
-Hollinger Lighting. Part 4
296. Exposure Exposure. While it is advisable always to expose correctly, it is quite essential that most accurate exposure be given for this style of lighting. Over-exposure to any great extent ...
-Hollinger Lighting. Part 5
300. Development Development. Develop in normal developer, watching the plate carefully as the image begins to appear. If it shows signs of contrast, treat it as an under-exposed plate, by placing ...
-Chapter XVI. Difficulties - Hollinger Lighting
310. Too Much Top-Light Too Much Top-Light. The subject is placed too near the center of the skylight. The sitter must be removed from under the light a trifle farther than for either a Plain ...
-Chapter XVII. Schriever Lighting
319. This style of lighting is just the opposite to Rembrandt Lighting, the face and figure being fully illuminated with soft, diffused light, the outline being in delicate shadows. This is one of ...
-Schriever Lighting. Part 2
326. Use Of Opaque Screen Use Of Opaque Screen. You must place an opaque screen, which may be a small background (even the diffusing screen, with black curtains drawn, will do), between the camera ...
-Schriever Lighting. Part 3
331. Exposure Exposure. One is apt to be deceived by the amount of exposure necessary for this style of lighting. Using the open light, softly diffused in the space occupied by the subject, there ...
-Chapter XVIII. Difficulties - Schriever Lighting
336. Portrait Too Flat Portrait Too Flat. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that Schriever Lighting produces little or no shadow, and there is, for that reason, danger of over-exposure. The ...
-Chapter XIX. Sarony Lighting
344. When the face is illuminated in a manner exactly the reverse to Profile Rembrandt Lighting, it is termed Sarony Lighting. Compare Illustrations Nos. 33 and 34 with Illustration No. 19 (Profile ...
-Sarony Lighting. Continued
350. Background Background. A blended background is excellent to employ with this style of lighting, as the shadow which outlines the front of the face should be contrasted with something less light,...
-Chapter XX. Bust Portraits In Drapery
355. Very beautiful, sketchy effects can be produced with the shoulders daintily draped. Some subjects lend themselves to the making of much more attractive photographs with shoulders draped in the ...
-Bust Portraits In Drapery. Continued
365. Practice Work Practice Work. In making work of this kind for practice, devote attention first to the draping of the subject. This is a most important consideration. See that the folds fall ...
-Chapter XXI. Figure Posing
366. Simplicity is the keynote of successful figure posing. The more simple the pose the more natural and pleasing are the final results. The one aim is to reproduce the subject in the most ...
-Figure Posing. Part 2
371. Position Of The Feet Position Of The Feet. While it is not objectionable to have the toe of the shoe show beneath the dress, never allow more than that to appear. Subjects cannot stand ...
-Figure Posing. Part 3
379. Men's Portraits Men's Portraits. Men are usually poor subjects for standing pictures. As a rule they appear to better advantage sitting; but if standing, and often when seated, a two-thirds ...
-Figure Posing. Part 4
390. Brides And Confirmation Pictures Brides And Confirmation Pictures. Of all classes of subjects, perhaps none give the photographer greater difficulties to surmount than brides, and children ...
-Figure Posing. Part 5
397. Confirmation Pictures Confirmation Pictures. Usually pictures of this class are made in but one style-with the subject standing by a table. By some photographers these pictures are looked upon ...
-Figure Posing. Part 6
401. Portraits Of Men Portraits Of Men. Illustration No. 54 presents a most careless position, easy and characteristic of the subject. The arm resting on the settee appears natural. The hand ...
-Chapter XXII. Figure Posing - Practice Work
404. Use Of Diffusing Screen Use Of Diffusing Screen. In lighting full length figures, especially when the subject is gowned in white drapery, the use of the diffusing screen is indispensable. With ...
-Figure Posing - Practice Work. Continued
409. Styles Of Lighting Styles Of Lighting. Some subjects appear to best advantage in a Broad Lighting, while others seem perfectly adapted to the Rembrandt style of lighting. Beginning at the ...
-Chapter XXIII. Child Photography
418. Of all phases of photography it would be difficult to select one more fascinating and full of pictorial possibilities than the photographing of children. Certainly there is no subject possessing ...
-Child Photography. Part 2
423. Posing The Child Posing The Child. The age of the child has much to do with the selection of position. Children ranging in . ages from two to five years make most excellent subjects. They are ...
-Child Photography. Part 3
428. Combination Group Pictures Combination Group Pictures. Where a number of different positions are made, usually orders can be obtained for a combination group of the different positions, all ...
-Child Photography. Part 4
436. Posing The Hands Posing The Hands. With the very young child no attempt whatever should be made at posing, but with a subject from three to six years of age much can be done toward special ...
-Child Photography. Part 5
440. Proper Expression Proper Expression. Expression is secured entirely by the manner in which the child is entertained. Never lose interest in the subject, no matter how trying it may be. Lose ...
-Child Photography. Part 6
447. Pictures Of Mother And Infant Pictures Of Mother And Infant. There are limitless numbers of positions in which the mother and baby may be placed to secure pretty and pleasing effects. The ...
-Child Photography. Part 7
453. Proper Position For The Camera Proper Position For The Camera. The camera should be lowered as much as possible. Most infants are fat-their necks being short, and the dressing of the neck high, ...
-Child Photography. Part 8
461. Practice Work Practice Work. As practically an open light is used when photographing children, little or no attention need be paid to the curtains. If the light appears a trifle harsh, drawing ...
-Chapter XXIV. Juvenile Portraiture
467. Of all subjects the photographer has to pose, none appear so awkward as boys and girls between the ages of seven and fourteen years. Usually subjects ranging between these ages are quite self-...
-Juvenile Portraiture. Part 2
472. Lighting Lighting. When lighting juvenile subjects, whether full-length, two-thirds or bust pictures, it is advisable to apply either the Plain Portrait or Schriever style of lighting. For some ...
-Juvenile Portraiture. Part 3
476. Obtaining Expression Obtaining Expression. Subjects around these ages require that a different means be employed for obtaining proper expression than in the cases of adults or smaller children. ...
-Juvenile Portraiture. Part 4
482. Bust Pictures Of Boys Bust Pictures Of Boys. When making bust pictures of boys, do not make the image too large. A head too large will give them the appearance of advanced age. The size of the ...
-Juvenile Portraiture. Part 5
494. Practice Work Practice Work. Of all subjects the juvenile requires the greatest amount of attention to produce natural, characteristic portraiture. Usually more or less awkward, they require ...
-Juvenile Portraiture. Part 6
499. Direction Of The Eye Direction Of The Eye. The direction of the eye is a very important factor, as the angle of the eye gives the motive for the expression. You should, therefore. move about in ...
-Chapter XXV. Grouping
504. Introduction Introduction. Grouping may be described as the combining of a number of single portraits to produce a harmonious arrangement of the whole. As much attention should be given to each ...
-Grouping. Part 2
514. Backgrounds Backgrounds. The average photographer usually gives more consideration, and practically all of his thought, to his subject, while the background is only slightly considered. It is ...
-Grouping. Part 3
523. Group Of Two Figures Group Of Two Figures. Where the subjects are of uniform height it is advisable to pose them seated, one in a lower position than the other, but facing each other. For ...
-Grouping. Part 4
528. Group Of Four Group Of Four. The figures in the group of two may be still further separated, the third figure being moved sufficiently to one side to permit the introduction of a fourth figure. ...
-Grouping. Part 5
533. Group Of Seven Group Of Seven. A group of this size is easily arranged, by simply introducing another figure back of the center in the group of six. An entirely different arrangement may be ...
-Grouping. Part 6
537. Children Children. Another matter for consideration is in reference to children. They compose an element of difficulty when included in any group, and the difficulty increases with the number ...
-Grouping. Part 7
547. Grouping Heads Grouping Heads. There are as many different methods of grouping heads as of grouping full-length figures. The pyramidal or the oval form of construction may be resorted to. In ...
-Chapter XXVI. Portraiture With The Aristo Lamp
549. Ever since portraiture by means of photography was seriously considered, the professional, as well as the manufacturer of photographic apparatus, has been constantly experimenting and trying to ...
-Portraiture With The Aristo Lamp. Continued
560. The spot light, which emphasizes the catch-lights on the high parts of the face, is made by taking four or six-ply cardboard, fourteen inches in diameter, and cutting a hole in the center two ...
-Chapter XXVII. The Schriever Method Of Using Aristo Lamp
565. By this method you require no extra screens or paraphernalia of any sort other than an adjustable reflector which you can prepare yourself at a cost not exceeding 50 cents. 566. The regular ...
-The Schriever Method Of Using Aristo Lamp. Part 2
572. Arranging The Lamp For Use Arranging The Lamp For Use. For bust portraits the lamp is placed between 7 and 8 feet from the floor. Illustration No. 75. Aristo Lamp-Schriever Method-View of ...
-The Schriever Method Of Using Aristo Lamp. Part 3
575. Exposure Exposure. The exposure required in making the portrait for this illustration with the rheostat on its second point, was 2 seconds with a Portrait Unar lens, full opening. 576. ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Flashlight Portraiture
581. Introduction Introduction. The use of flashlight in professional portraiture is not so generally employed as it would be if the photographer knew its possibilities and the ease with which ...
-Flashlight Portraiture. Part 2
586. Plain Portrait Lighting Plain Portrait Lighting. Plain Portrait Lightings are made by flashlight, of course, in identically the same way as Plain Portrait Lightings by daylight. In fact, for ...
-Flashlight Portraiture. Part 3
592. Order Of Procedure In Making Flashlight Portraits Order Of Procedure In Making Flashlight Portraits. (a) Remove the little alcohol lamp and fill it with the required amount of alcohol; then ...
-Flashlight Portraiture. Part 4
597. Bulb Bulb. To press the bulb properly is quite important in flashlight work. Squeeze it hard and let go quickly. Handle the bulb as if making the quickest possible instantaneous exposure. It is ...
-Chapter XXIX. The Towles Smokeless Automatic Flash Machine
604. This machine produces superior negative quality, by reason of the even diffusion of light through the perfect combustion of the powder. 605. With this machine, modeling and concentration are ...

Part III: Volume 8: Studio Portraiture. Part 2

-Volume VIII. Studio Portraiture. Part II. Introductory Chapter. Portrait Composition
By Sidney Allan (Sadakichi Hartmann). Composition is synonymous with artistic invention, the ability to delineate objects in such a way that we are impressed with the fidelity of representation, an...
-Portrait Composition. Part 2
The Portrait Study by Bessie Buehrman (Fig. 5) is not quite free from this criticism. Costumes and surroundings, however carefully they may be chosen, are after all, only secondary attributes in a p...
-Portrait Composition. Part 3
Fig. 8. Companions Henry Hall Fig. 7. The Picture Book Davis and Eickemeyer Fig. 9. Master Gerald Philbin Davis and Eickemeyer 3, 4, 9, 10 and 11 are to be preferred to more impressionistic re...
-Portrait Composition. Part 4
The portraitist must subdue all minor interests to the face. Only then the problem of tonal arrangement in portraiture can be solved. It consists largely of a right sense of proportion, to understand ...
-Portrait Composition. Part 5
Arnold Genthe in the portrait of Peter Robertson (Fig. 12) shows us the method of diffusion in a more marked degree. As may be easily understood, there is in this sort of pictorialism not much scope...
-Chapter XXX. Part I. The New School In Portrait Photography
By R. W. Phillips. 610. Introductory Introductory. In the preceding volumes of this library we have been led through the mazes of practical photography, and have been given thorough instruction in t...
-Illustrations
614. In Fig. I, we have a fully timed negative, giving all the roundness of the face, all the detail in the shadows, and perfect development of negative, such as a demonstrator would call a fine ...
-Part II. Available Reproductions From Old Masters
626. To a greater or less extent all persons are imitators. In an entirely new line of work it is impossible for the majority to be absolutely original; therefore, for the assistance of those who ...
-Recommended List Of Reproductions From Old Masters
Published by Perry Pictures Company, Maiden, Mass. Italian Art. - Fra Angelico, 222H; Fra Filippo Lippi, 241; Peru-gino, 257; Botticelli, 259; Leonardo da Vinci, 277, 278; Michelangelo, 294; Luini, 3...
-Chapter XXXI. Brush Development, Or Local Treatment Of Negative While Developing
629. In order to centralize the light on the point of interest, the advanced student tries many ways to cut down objectionable high-lights in his picture, all of which are more or less successful. ...
-Brush Development, Or Local Treatment Of Negative While Developing. Continued
634. Formula For Brush Development Formula For Brush Development. Take any pyro-soda formula and make up regularly for first development Then make up another solution, same quantities, pyro-sulphite ...
-Chapter XXXII. Child Portraiture By The Ordinary Window. Modern Photography
By Wm. Shewell Ellis. 638. That we owe a great deal to the Old School in photography is readily granted. To these early workers we are indebted for most of the technical perfection that has come to...
-Chapter XXXIII. The Studio Of The Future
656. That there is a change, almost imperceptible, but still constant and powerful in its influence, in the methods of portrait-making, is undeniable. The arbitrary domination of the sky-lighted ...
-The Studio Of The Future. Part 2
667. The Use Of The Plate-Rail The Use Of The Plate-Rail. The plate-rail is located at a suitable height for sitting, two-third and full length standing subjects, breaking up the background and ...
-The Studio Of The Future. Part 3
670. Construction Of Cabinet Frame Construction Of Cabinet Frame. It is preferable to have the framework of the cabinet constructed of as light material as is consistent with rigidity. White pine ...
-The Studio Of The Future. Part 4
672. The Lamp In Use The Lamp In Use. In Illustration No. 90a is shown the lamp in use, with the subject in position. We also show in this illustration the finished picture made by the light. The ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Method Of Conducting A Photographic Studio. Introduction
676. The sucessful conducting of a photographic business depends largely upon the quality of the work produced. The photographer's work that is sold to the customers is his own best advertisement, ...
-Chapter XXXV. Part I. Cost Of Producing Photographs
693. Study the cost of materials and see if your photographs can be produced for the prices that you are asking. Remember, that you are to be honest with yourself and those who are dependent upon you,...
-Part II. Reception Room Work
696. In waiting on customers your first efforts should be directed towards the studying of your patrons and obtaining some idea of their tastes and their ideas, and then placing suitable pictures ...
-Part II. Reception Room Work. Part 2
705. Customers Who Select Their Styles Before Sitting Customers Who Select Their Styles Before Sitting. This class of customers should be handled in the same way as those who sit first and order ...
-Part II. Reception Room Work. Part 3
710. Re-Sittings Re-Sittings. The photographer who makes many different positions of his customers will have little trouble with re-sittings. Where re-sittings are desired it is usually because ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Studio Bookkeeping
712. Introduction Introduction. The studio system, to be practical, must be as simple as possible, and require as little duplicate recording as is absolutely necessary. The first step in ...
-Studio Bookkeeping. Part 2
716. Recording The Sitting Recording The Sitting. The order for the sitting may be recorded before the customer is photographed, but usually it is better to make the sitting first and then register ...
-Studio Bookkeeping. Part 3
721. Alphabetical Book Alphabetical Book. In order to facilitate matters in looking up duplicate orders, or when occasion requires looking up the original order, an alphabetical book should be used ...
-Studio Bookkeeping. Part 4
725. Duplicate Orders Duplicate Orders. Duplicate orders should not be recorded in the studio register, as it will be far more convenient to have a special place for keeping a record of these orders....
-Chapter XXXVII. System For Finishing Work
732. In large studios it is customary to promise work finished in two weeks from the date proofs are returned. The general public have become accustomed to this rule, therefore they do not expect an ...
-System For Finishing Work. Part 2
747. Retoucher's Duties Retoucher's Duties. With this accomplished the negatives are sent to the retoucher, who immediately records in a note book (kept for the purpose) the number of all the ...
-System For Finishing Work. Part 3
752. Finishing Days Finishing Days. In the average studio there should be at least two days in the week set apart expressly for finishing and delivering work. If the bulk of the work is on printing ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Condensed Schedule Of System In The Work-Shop
In General 759. Promise all work two weeks from return of proofs. 760. All work to be delivered, finished, to the office on the thirteenth day. In Detail 761. Register customer with name, address,...
-Chapter XXXIX. Show-Case
786. The show-case should be given as much consideration as the reception-room, no matter what the standard of work of the studio is, or where it is located. A display of some kind should be placed ...
-Show-Case. Continued
792. Specialized Displays Specialized Displays. Many photographers specialize on one particular branch of the work. For instance, one photographer may specialize on baby pictures, another CHIEF ...
-Chapter XL. Studio Advertising
799. A merchant selling goods is an individual who is accommodating and conveniencing the general public by-placing the goods or material which he sells within convenient and easy reach. This same ...
-Studio Advertising. Part 2
804. Waiting For Trade Waiting For Trade. There are far too many photographers who make little or no effort to work up new trade. They have a small display of pictures at the entrance; perhaps a ...
-Studio Advertising. Part 3
826. Writing Advertisements Writing Advertisements. In writing advertisements there are a few essential points that should be considered: 827. First, take the natural desire which you have a right ...
-Chapter XLI. Regulation Of Prices
835. The regulation of prices to be charged for different grades of work depends largely upon the class of trade you are catering to. Where exclusive trade is solicited, usually no pictures are made ...
-Chapter XLII. Dealing With Competition
839. If the proper means are employed it matters little how much competition one has. There is a way of making your work exclusive from all others, and if each photographer would apply similar ...
-Chapter XLIII. Buying Supplies
843. Unless very cautious in the purchasing of supplies, photographic mounts, etc., the photographer will find in a short time quite an accumulation of stock which is tying up money that he should ...
-Chapter XLIV. Card Filing System For Photographers
By L. D. Stocking, of the Shaw-Walker Co., Muskegon, Mich. 852. Keeping A Record Of Work Keeping A Record Of Work. Few people realize how much detail work most photographers really have to contend w...
-Chapter XLV. Equipping A Photographic Studio
866. Introduction Introduction. In supplying information regarding the equipping of a photographic studio, we will deal with studios doing a general photographic business only, for when the ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 2
873. Color Combinations For Walls Color Combinations For Walls. The first consideration for either of these rooms should be the color of the walls. They should be plain and not fussy and a color ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 3
886. Dressing-Rooms Dressing-Rooms. If possible, it is advisable to have two dressing-rooms located convenient to the skylight-room - one for the ladies and the other for gentlemen. Special care ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 4
902. Dark-Room Dark-Room. As considerable of one's time is spent in the dark-room, this room should be made as comfortable and convenient as possible and should not be made a store room, as is ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 5
914. Apparatus And Materials For Use In The Dark-Room Apparatus And Materials For Use In The Dark-Room. In addition to the washing and fixing boxes, which should be large enough to accommodate the ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 6
920. Printing-Room Printing-Room. Notwithstanding the fact that gaslight and developing papers are used to a great extent in many studios, a regular daylight printing-room should be provided, with ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 7
928. Finishing Department Finishing Department. Where it is possible, it is advisable to have one room expressly for toning, and another one for the general finishing, such as mounting, spotting, ...
-Equipping A Photographic Studio. Part 8
937. Finishing-Room Finishing-Room. This room should be kept neat and dry, and provided with a good solid work table or bench, as well as with shelves and cabinets in which to store the mounts. If ...
-Chapter XLVI. Hanging Pictures
946. The proper hanging of pictures is a problem which few photographers consider at all seriously, many thinking that to simply insert a couple screw-eyes in the back of the picture frame and attach ...
-Chapter XLVII. An Inexpensive Studio
956. There are many forms, plans and arrangements which may be adopted in constructing an inexpensive ground floor studio. One which has proven a great success, for use in small towns where ample ...
-An Inexpensive Studio. Part 2
960. Ventilator Ventilator. A ventilator may be provided at the highest point of the skylight, in the end wall. By having a shutter in this ventilator, controlled by a cord passing through pulleys, ...
-An Inexpensive Studio. Part 3
968. Printing And Finishing-Room Printing And Finishing-Room. The printing and finishing-room is eleven feet long, and on the outside wall is constructed a printing light fitted with plain glass, a ...
-An Inexpensive Studio. Part 4
973. Water Conveniences Water Conveniences. Where city water can be had there should be at least one tap in the dark-room and one in the finishing-room, arranged over the sink. Where running water ...
-Chapter XLVIII. Studio Insurance
977. Not the least important part of the business end of the studio is the careful insuring of the plant to the fullest extent it will carry. The business-like photographer will cause an inventory to ...
-Studio Insurance. Continued
985. The Value Of Old Negatives The Value Of Old Negatives. The greatest difficulty in adjusting the fire claims of a studio usually occurs with the negatives. Old negatives may have a special value ...
-Chapter XLIX. The Ownership Of Photographic Negatives
992. Private Customers Private Customers. In the absence of a stipulation to the contrary, the ordinary bargain between a photographer and his customer includes, by implication, an agreement that ...
-Chapter L. Copyrighting Photographs
999. To secure the undisputable right of reproducing certain photographic negatives and prints is often desirable. Our own government, as well as that of foreign countries, has a system known as ...
-Copyrighting Photographs. Part 2
1005. Postmaster's Receipt Postmaster's Receipt. In sending prints to the register of copyrights, on which copyright protection is to be secured, they should be delivered, ready for mailing, to the ...
-Copyrighting Photographs. Part 3
1010. No Action For Infringement Until Deposit Of Copies No Action For Infringement Until Deposit Of Copies. No action or proceeding shall be maintained for infringement of copyright in any work ...
-Copyrighting Photographs. Part 4
1015. Copyrighting Photographs Of Public Characters Copyrighting Photographs Of Public Characters. On the other hand, if the photographer invites some one to come to him and have their photograph ...
-Copyrighting Photographs. Part 5
1022. Permission For Right Of Copyright From Subjects Permission For Right Of Copyright From Subjects. Unless there is an agreement to the contrary, all portraits taken at a sitting are the property ...
-Chapter LI. Color Photography. Part I. The "Autochrome" Process
By Henry J. Comley, F. R. P. S., Stroud, England. 1027. The Autochrome screen-plate process of color photography has been truthfully described as the greatest advance in photography since the adven...
-Color Photography. Part I. The "Autochrome" Process. Part 2
1032. The Principle Involved The Principle Involved. In making an Auto-chrome picture the principle involved is as follows: The plate is put into the plate-holder the reverse way, so that the glass ...
-Color Photography. Part I. The "Autochrome" Process. Part 3
1040. Exposure Exposure. We now come to the most important item in Autochrome work, and, it must be said, the only stage of the work which presents any difficulty, if the subsequent instructions are ...
-Table Of Formulae For Use With Autochrome Plates
1046. In First Development In First Development. A. Water.................................................... 10 ozs Pyrogallic Acid...................................
-Table Of Formulae For Use With Autochrome Plates. Continued
1055. Caution Caution. So delicate is the nature of the Auto-chrome plate, that in a wet condition the slightest touch will cause abrasion, which is irreparable. It is, therefore, advisable to ...
-Alternative Methods Of Development
1066. One of the great disadvantages in working the Lumiere method is that one cannot examine the plate during the first development, at least not with the ordinary light of the dark-room. 1067. ...
-Chapter LII. Color Photography. Part II. Autochromes From Autochromes. General Pointers
1077. Autochromes From Autochromes Autochromes From Autochromes. It is often desirable to make duplicates of the choicest of our Auto-chrome results, first, on account of the intrinsic value of the ...
-Chapter LIII. Color Photography. Part III. Autochrome Process - Difficulties
1090. Under-Exposure Under-Exposure. An under-exposed plate, when out of the reversing solution C, after the first development, shows a dark image lacking detail in the shadows. The result is the ...
-Chapter LIV. Color Photography. 1909 Supplement. Autochrome Process. Simplified Method Of Development
1105. The only difficulty in the original method of developing Autochrome plates was the impossibility of correcting errors in exposure by modifying the composition of the first developer and time of ...
-Color Photography. Autochrome Process. Simplified Method Of Development. Part 2
1121. Clearing Clearing. When intensification is found to be complete, rinse the plate, for a few seconds, in running water, and immerse them from 30 seconds to 1 minute in permanganate solution H, (...
-Color Photography. Autochrome Process. Simplified Method Of Development. Part 3
1131. Time Development For The Correction Of Errors In Exposure Time Development For The Correction Of Errors In Exposure. The preceding method of developing for a fixed time applies only to ...
-Chapter LV. Color Photography. Part IV. Three-Color Photography
1136. The Theory The Theory. The beautiful colors of the spectrum demonstrate to us that the composition of white light is not simple, but a combination of various colored rays. This being so, it is ...
-Color Photography. Part IV. Three-Color Photography. Part 2
1145. Coating Coating. Now we are ready to coat the glasses with the plain gelatin. This is best done by laying the glass down upon a leveled surface. The writer prefers to use drinking tumblers, ...
-Color Photography. Part IV. Three-Color Photography. Part 3
1155. Another Method Of Making Light Filters Another Method Of Making Light Filters. Use a 10 per cent. solution of gelatin instead of the distilled water given in the filter dye-bath of the first ...
-Color Photography. Part IV. Three-Color Photography. Part 4
1168. The Camera, Etc The Camera, Etc. For three-color work certain modifications are necessary in the camera. Various forms have been devised, some of which make it possible to expose the three ...
-Color Photography. Part IV. Three-Color Photography. Part 5
1176. Portraits Portraits. The following formula has been found perfectly satisfactory for portraits and still-life work: Metol ....................................... 25 grs. ...
-Chapter LVI. Color Photography. Part V. Three-Color Carbon Process
1182. The printing process par excellence is undoubtedly the carbon process, employing for the purpose either the stripping film of the Rotary Photographic Company, Ltd., or the ordinary carbon ...
-Color Photography. Part V. Three-Color Carbon Process. Part 2
1191. Printing Printing. The dry sensitive films should first have a soft cloth rubbed over the back of them, in order to remove any trace of sensitizer which may be adhering thereto, and printing ...
-Color Photography. Part V. Three-Color Carbon Process. Part 3
1203. The Blue Print The Blue Print. First, prepare a 5 per cent. solution of thin sheet gelatin, which should be filtered before use. Place the blue film in water at a temperature of 70 Fahr., ...
-Chapter LVII. Color Photography. Part VI. Three-Color Gum Process
1212. Very soft and artistic three-color prints maybe made by the gum process, and as it is not a difficult process to work, and further is most economical, it is especially recommended for ...
-Chapter LVIII. Color Photography. Part VII. The "Pinatype" Three-Color Process
1225. Pinatype is a process patented by Meister Lucius & Bruning, Hoechst on Main, Germany. The process is based upon the fact that bichromated gelatin exposed to the light, under a positive in a ...
-Color Photography. Part VII. The "Pinatype" Three-Color Process. Continued
1231. Printing Printing. The print plate marked blue is then soaked in the blue dye bath for about fifteen minutes. It is then washed under a stream of water until there is no color in the water ...
-Chapter LIX. Russian Oil Coloring. A Method For Coloring Photographs, Prints, Drawings On Paper, China, Etc., With Oil Colors Without Paint, Brush Or Pencil
This extremely simple method is very easy to learn, and only a little practice is necessary for the production of good results. The process requires neither brush nor pencil, an ordinary cotton stump,...
-Color Mixtures For Portraiture
Flesh Tint. - Mix crimson or rose madder with yellow ochre until it gives the natural creamy tint. For darker complexions add a little raw sienna. When a satisfactory flesh tint has been obtained it m...
-Draperies
Yellow Draperies. - The brightest yellow colors may be imitated by using Naples yellow, the more subdued ones with yellow ochre. Blue Draperies. - Blue draperies are produced by combining cobalt blue...
-Preparing The Tints For Coloring
Any kind of a picture can be colored - photographs on bromide paper, gelatin paper, platino or matt surface collodion paper, carbon, platinum, velox (or any gaslight papers), even engravings, drawings...
-Preparing The Tints For Coloring. Part 2
COLORING LANDSCAPES. For coloring landscapes begin with the sky; then if there is any water in the scene, color it, using the same tints as for the sky. Next color the background, and conclude with t...
-Preparing The Tints For Coloring. Part 3
Bear in mind, if a color is too strong on the print it may be reduced to a certain extent by simply rubbing with the stump. If this fails to give the desired result, apply a little turpentine to a cle...
-Preparing The Tints For Coloring. Part 4
Caution. - Never dip the cotton stump in the turpentine while charged with colors - always make a new stump. Always use the same end of the wooden stick for the plain turpentine stumps, while the othe...
-Chapter LX. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Study No. 1. Portrait by Ryland W. Phillips, Philadelphia, Pa. This picture was made in an operating-room 45 x 25 feet, under a top and side light. The light was diffused with muslin curtains and cont...
-How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made. Part 2
Study No. 16. Portrait by C. J. Van Deventer, Decatur, I11. This picture was made in an operating-room, 20 x 30 feet; style of light used, top and side; size of light, 18 x 18 feet. The light was used...
-How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made. Part 3
Study No. 30. Portrait by Geo. Tingley, Mystic, Conn. The picture was made in an operating-room 20 x 30 feet; style of light, top, 45 degrees and no side light; size of light, 12 feet square. The ligh...

Part IV: Volume 9: Commercial, Press, Scientific Photography

-Volume IX. Commercial, Press, Scientific Photography. Chapter I. Commercial Photography. Introduction
1. During the earlier years of photography - while it was, as we might say, in its experimental stages - portraiture and landscape, with occasional flights into scientific fields, were the beginning a...
-Commercial Photography. Introduction. Continued
16. Subject Material Subject Material. Aside from the photographing of individual subjects, such as a store window, a residence, a particular piece of furniture, etc., there are far wider fields of o...
-Chapter II. Commercial Photography. Apparatus And Materials
19. Cameras Cameras. The proper equipment for commercial work depends, to a great extent, upon the class and kind of work required. Different localities require different sized prints, and an instrum...
-Commercial Photography. Apparatus And Materials. Part 2
23. Advantage Of Large Cameras Advantage Of Large Cameras. Larger cameras, however, have their advantages, the first of which is the greater facility offered for composing the picture on a large-size...
-Commercial Photography. Apparatus And Materials. Part 3
31. Tripod Tripod. The tripod - one of the telescopic type, which permits of the legs being adjusted to any desired length - should be rigid and firm when set up. This will permit one to work on unev...
-Commercial Photography. Apparatus And Materials. Part 4
45. Plates Plates. Various speeds and kinds of plates will be required for various classes of commercial work, but where an all-around plate is desired, the exact nature of the lighting, conditions f...
-Chapter III. The Reason for Orthochromatism
51. It is often difficult for the uninitiated to understand and appreciate the principles involved in correct rendering of colors in monochrome (one color). Messrs. Wratten and Wainwright, Ltd., of Cr...
-The Reason for Orthochromatism. Continued
60. Orthochromatic Screens Orthochromatic Screens. You will sometimes see it stated that you can use some particular orthochromatic plate without a screen. You can, but you will not get any appreci...
-Chapter IV. Commercial Exterior Architectural Photography
68. Introduction Introduction. The principles embodied in commercial photography out-of-doors are exactly the same as those on which instruction was given in Volume III, but the commercial features a...
-Commercial Exterior Architectural Photography. Continued
77. Another reason for making the exposure at the particular time of day it was made was to have the strongest light on the front, in order to produce relief in the capitals of the pillars and the orn...
-Commercial Exterior Architectural Photography. Part 2
85. Exposure Exposure. Again referring to the six photographs of residences, you will observe that a sufficient amount of exposure was given to secure a full amount of detail even in the very deepest...
-Commercial Exterior Architectural Photography. Part 3
93. Sectional Detail Sectional Detail. It is many times desirable to show certain portions or features of a residence or other building, such as gables, doors, windows, porches, pillars and their cap...
-Commercial Exterior Architectural Photography. Part 4
98. Accentuating Shadows On Dull Days Accentuating Shadows On Dull Days. Where residences are photographed under a clouded sky the color values - lights and shades - may be accentuated considerably b...
-Commercial Exterior Architectural Photography. Part 5
106. Stop To Use Stop To Use. The size of stop to use will depend entirely upon the covering power of the lens employed. The whole plate must be cut with good definition to the extreme edges, and the...
-Chapter V. Part I. Extreme Wide-Angle Photography
By Means of the Goerz Anastigmat Hypergon Lens. 111. While the wide-angle lens is at no time the lens which will give the most perfect representation of a building, scene or object, its use is often ...
-Part I. Extreme Wide-Angle Photography. Part 2
116. Working Aperture Working Aperture. The maximum relative working aperture of this lens is f. 22 (U. S. 30.25). It has all the regular corrections of the anastigmat lens, except for chromatic aber...
-Part I. Extreme Wide-Angle Photography. Part 3
121. Home-Made Camera Box Home-Made Camera Box. The following applies to a 5x7 size instrument - either larger or smaller ones can be constructed on the same principles: The first requisite is the ba...
-Part II. Difficulties - Hypergon Lens
127. Margins Or Corners Of Plate Either Transparent Or Semi-Transparent Margins Or Corners Of Plate Either Transparent Or Semi-Transparent. Caused by not leaving the star-diaphragm in front of the le...
-Chapter VI. Commercial Interiors
131. Introduction Introduction. The photographing of interiors is, by most photographic workers, considered a difficult task and, therefore, has received little attention, except from the few who hav...
-Commercial Interiors. Part 2
137. Location Of Objects Location Of Objects. It is seldom advisable to change the location of any of the articles in the room, unless so desired by the person for whom you are making the photograph....
-Commercial Interiors. Part 3
149. Detail And Harmonious Arrangement Detail And Harmonious Arrangement. In a general way, it may be stated that when photographing interiors of residences, detail and a harmonious arrangement of th...
-Commercial Interiors. Part 4
156. Time Of Day Time Of Day. The light conditions will have much to do with your success or failure with this class of subject. You should try to make the exposure when the sun or strong light is no...
-Commercial Interiors. Part 5
162. Attention To Foreground Attention To Foreground. A very important point for consideration in photographing store-rooms is to avoid a crowded foreground, and also the placing of large objects in ...
-Commercial Interiors. Part 6
169. Window Displays Window Displays. One of the most difficult subjects to photograph by daylight illumination is window displays, the trouble arising from reflections which invariably occur under o...
-Commercial Interiors. Part 7
172. Factories Factories. The securing of photographs of the interiors of factories is one of the most remunerative branches of this part of photography. From the fact that the photographer is lookin...
-Chapter VII. Architectural Detail
178. The photographing of architectural details is extremely interesting, yet until recent years little of this class of work was undertaken except by the amateur photographer. Architects, designers, ...
-Architectural Detail. Part 2
182. Telephoto Exposure Telephoto Exposure. The amount of exposure to be given where the regular telephoto lens is employed, may be very easily reckoned by referring to the table given in Volume VI, ...
-Architectural Detail. Part 3
187. Stained Glass Windows Stained Glass Windows. Usually stained and figured glass windows in churches, residences, etc., are considered quite difficult subjects to photograph. They are generally ...
-Architectural Detail. Part 4
193. Lighting Lighting. The light for photographing these subjects in interiors is usually soft and diffused, and in order to accentuate the high-lights and shadows the principal light should, in a ...
-Chapter VIII. Photographing Castings And Machinery
200. Introduction Introduction. One of the most important fields of commercial work for the photographer is the securing of perfect reproductions of castings and machinery. This work is not at all ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 2
206. Distortion Of Wide-Angle Lenses Distortion Of Wide-Angle Lenses. The focal-length of the lens is also of vital importance, for a wide-angle lens invariably gives a violent perspective and ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 3
213. Dulling The Surface Of Dark-Painted Machinery Dulling The Surface Of Dark-Painted Machinery. Mix white lead with turpentine to the consistency of thin cream, with sufficient lampblack added to ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 4
219. Illuminating Objects When Working Against The Light Illuminating Objects When Working Against The Light. The manufacturers of engines, locomotives, printing-presses, steam-pumps and other heavy ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 5
225. General Lighting General Lighting. The form of lighting to employ is that which will give the greatest amount of relief and roundness to the object being photographed. Harsh and strong lighting ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 6
230. Photographing Tools And Small Articles Photographing Tools And Small Articles. The best way to photograph tools or other small articles is to lay them on the floor, or small box, covered with ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 7
236. Photographing Machinery In Use Photographing Machinery In Use. Pictures of interiors of power plants, machine shops, factories, etc., are made for use largely for advertising purposes, where ...
-Photographing Castings And Machinery. Part 8
244. Exposure Exposure. The necessary exposure for this class of work will depend entirely upon the subject, but you must bear in mind that when photographing machinery you are dealing principally ...
-Chapter IX. Blocking Negatives
246. Blocking The Negative Blocking The Negative. Generally commercial photographs require white backgrounds. This effect can easily be obtained in the following manner: Sew together a couple of ...
-Chapter X. Photographing Objects Requiring Long-Focus Lenses
254. Small objects and similar articles must be reproduced in their natural perspective to preserve their true drawing and show a semblance to their original structure. Consequently, any lens which ...
-Chapter XI. Photographing Pianos For Catalogs, Etc
264. The enormous extent of the piano industry is barely realized by the average person, but it is safe to say that there is no city of any size in the country which does not boast of one or two ...
-Photographing Pianos For Catalogs, Etc. Continued
271. Avoiding Reflections Avoiding Reflections. Where the piano has already been polished it is a good plan to extend over the front of the camera a black cloth, with an opening for the lens, thus ...
-Chapter XII. Photographing Furniture
277. Introduction Introduction. The manufacturers of furniture, especially when there is no upholstering, such as in beds, dressers, wooden chairs, etc., never finish or polish the wood for their ...
-Photographing Furniture. Part 2
282. Plates To Use Plates To Use. The best plate to use for this work is a slow one. With a slow plate and a long exposure the best of results can be obtained. The Commercial Ortho-chromatic plate ...
-Photographing Furniture. Part 3
289. Combination Prints Combination Prints. There are times when prints are wanted mounted in sets of from three to six in a row, and in order to mount them so that they may be folded together, a ...
-Chapter XIII. Photographing Laces, Cut-Glass, Silver Trophies, Bric-A-Brac, Etc
293. Certain difficulties present themselves in photographing small objects which do not make themselves apparent in the photographing of large objects, such as furniture. Aside from the ...
-Photographing Laces, Cut-Glass, Silver Trophies, Bric-A-Brac, Etc. Part 2
298. Placing Lace On Board Placing Lace On Board. Lay the lace on the center of the board, and smooth out wrinkles and snags carefully with a bristle brush. Stick common black pins through the ...
-Photographing Laces, Cut-Glass, Silver Trophies, Bric-A-Brac, Etc. Part 3
303. Lighting Lighting. Unless proper precautions are taken difficulties will be experienced when photographing glassware, cut-glass, etc., in overcoming reflections and excessively strong high-...
-Photographing Laces, Cut-Glass, Silver Trophies, Bric-A-Brac, Etc. Part 4
309. Silverware, Trophies, Etc Silverware, Trophies, Etc. Silver trophies, coffee services, and similar subjects, may be handled in the same manner as already described for glass and chinaware. ...
-Chapter XIV. Catalog Illustrating
312. A very important use to which photography has been put is catalog illustrating. There is scarcely an article advertised that is not photographed and the illustration employed in advertising ...
-Catalog Illustrating. Part 2
316. Continuous Background Continuous Background. When photographing small articles requiring a continuous background, a sheet of cream wrapping-paper may be used, laid over the back of a chair and ...
-Catalog Illustrating. Part 3
325. Size Of Print Size Of Print. One should use large plates, if possible, for all commercial work, but if you do not desire to invest in an expensive outfit, you may use smaller plates and make ...
-Catalog Illustrating. Part 4
331. Wash Drawings Wash Drawings. All wash drawings are usually made over bromide enlargements; therefore, all that is required from the photographer is to make a small negative showing the attitude ...
-Chapter XV. System For Handling Construction Work. Part I. Introduction
By E. S. Hanson,* Editor The Contractor. 335. A record of every important detail of business -a record that has a meaning and a use - that is one of the purposes of system. 336. Business today is ...
-System For Handling Construction Work. Part I. Introduction. Part 2
343. Photographs Taken With The Accuracy Of A Surveyor Photographs Taken With The Accuracy Of A Surveyor. A point and an arrow of direction were established on each one of these towers. The ...
-System For Handling Construction Work. Part I. Introduction. Part 3
355. Classes Of Photographs Classes Of Photographs. Many engineers and contractors require two classes of photographs to be taken on all pieces of work: Construction photographs, which are kept for ...
-System For Handling Construction Work. Part I. Introduction. Part 4
360. Uses Of The Camera In The Factory Uses Of The Camera In The Factory. In the factory the camera can be adapted to an endless variety of uses, limited only by the ingenuity of the manager in ...
-System For Handling Construction Work. Part I. Introduction. Part 5
367. Photographs For Advertising Photographs For Advertising. The publicity department of this company also makes extensive use of the photographs of completed installations. Articles are prepared ...
-Chapter XVI. Construction Work. Part II. Practical Application
369. The application of photography to construction work, and its value, can be no stronger exemplified than in the use which the Arnold Company - engineers and contractors - of Chicago, are making ...
-Construction Work. Part II. Practical Application. Continued
378. Prints Of Uniform Size Prints Of Uniform Size. All prints are of the courtesy or the Arnold Co., Chicago Illustration No. 83 Construction Blue Print See Paragraph 380 same size, and are ...
-Chapter XVII. Construction Work. Part III. Detailed Working Conditions
384. The application of photography to construction work is not confined alone to the large companies and engineers, for if they have found it of inestimable value it is quite certain that all ...
-Construction Work. Part III. Detailed Working Conditions. Continued
391. Level Level. It is essential that all lines be absolutely-perfect, and for this reason the camera should be accurately leveled. Although it is possible to judge approximately on the ground-...
-Chapter XVIII. Commercial Groups
400. The photographing of groups of large bodies of men, women or children, or mixed crowds, such as conventions, parades, etc., will occasion but little difficulty to the one who has carefully ...
-Commercial Groups. Part 2
406. Small Groups Small Groups. These should present no difficulties other than those already described in previous instruction. The skill of the photographer will show itself in the arrangement of ...
-Commercial Groups. Part 3
410. Making The Group Making The Group. In using a panoramic camera in which the lens revolves about a fixed point, it is clear that if a long, straight building were being photographed with the ...
-Chapter XIX. Use Of Smokeless Devices In Flashlight Work
By the Prosch Manufacturing Co. 417. Much progress has been made in flashlight methods during the past few years. The old smoke nuisance is being avoided by the use of special fire-proofed bags, whic...
-Use Of Smokeless Devices In Flashlight Work. Part 2
422. Cloth For Flashbags Cloth For Flashbags. In use the flashbag is securely tied so that practically no smoke escapes from the flash, excepting that coming through the pores of the cloth, which is ...
-Use Of Smokeless Devices In Flashlight Work. Part 3
428. Large Work Large Work. Banquets, Etc. - As to the class of large work, let us say that this is becoming very rapidly a distinct profession in itself, and requires good business ability outside ...
-Use Of Smokeless Devices In Flashlight Work. Part 4
434. Method Of Procedure Method Of Procedure. In making the group picture for the above illustrations, Mr. Rau used six flashbags - four at the side and two at the front of the group, with the ...
-Chapter XX. Press Photography
437. Introduction Introduction. A phase of commercial photography, which has grown with leaps and bounds during the last few years, is the making of pictures for the newspapers and magazines. So ...
-Part I. Newspaper Photography
440. Newspaper photography is one of the newest arts, yet within the past few years it has become one of the most important. Few papers of large circulation and good standing can afford to ignore ...
-Part I. Newspaper Photography. Part 2
447. Ingenuity Brought To A Test Ingenuity Brought To A Test. Then, too, it must be remembered that it is not the photographs most easily obtained that sell best. The newspaper camera man must ...
-Part I. Newspaper Photography. Part 3
454. Moving Objects Moving Objects. In snapping moving subjects - and such pictures always have a high value in the news-editor's eyes - one must govern his control of the camera and the swiftness ...
-Chapter XXI. Press Photography. Part II. The Local Press Photographer
460. In many cases the photographs published in daily or weekly newspapers, magazines, etc., are supplied by regular press photographers, but a large percentage of those used for this purpose are ...
-Chapter XXII. Press Photography. Part III. Athletic Sports
471. The press photographer is called upon to photograph athletic sports of all kinds, and he should be acquainted, to a greater or less extent, with the particular features of the various games, so ...
-Press Photography. Part III. Athletic Sports. Continued
478. Pole-Vault And High-Jump Pole-Vault And High-Jump. The contestant in the pole-vault or the high-jump should be photographed just as he clears the bar. Many times he will not perfectly clear ...
-Chapter XXIII. Press Photography. Part IV. Excursions, Conventions And Prominent Individuals
483. Although for all phases of press photography the reflecting type of camera is the best to employ, a view camera may be used when photographing large groups which are arranged or posed expressly ...
-Excursions, Conventions And Prominent Individuals. Part 2
490. Publicity Publicity. If there is a program issued, or a special time-table printed by the Railroad Company he should try to have his name appear on the folder as official photographer. This ...
-Excursions, Conventions And Prominent Individuals. Part 3
499. Catastrophes Catastrophes. Railroad wrecks, floods, fires, earthquakes, and all similar catastrophes, due, to a greater or less extent, to the uncontrollable elements, make good subject ...
-Chapter XXIV. Press Photography. Part V. Engineering Construction
504. A glance through the various engineering journals will give one some idea of their photographic requirements. All of the various trade journals make certain demands upon the photographer, but ...
-Press Photography. Part V. Engineering Construction. Continued
510. Panama Canal Panama Canal. One of the greatest engineering projects of modern times, and one of special interest to every American, is the construction of the great Panama Canal across the ...
-Chapter XXV. Stereoscopic Photography
Introduction By L. J. R. Hoist. 520. Nature has equipped mankind with two eyes, which enables him to observe and judge the distance between objects, as well as the lateral dimensions of objects. Exp...
-Stereoscopic Photography. Continued
530. The Lenses The Lenses. The majority of photographers have only one set of stereoscopic lenses and must use these for the greatest possible variety of views. This makes the selection of a focal-...
-Chapter XXVI. Stereoscopic Photography. Detailed Instruction
536. Stereoscopic Camera Stereoscopic Camera. The stereoscopic camera in its simplest form consists of a partitioned box with a pair of perfectly matched lenses mounted on its front board in a fixed ...
-Stereoscopic Photography. Detailed Instruction. Part 2
543. Pairing Of Lenses Pairing Of Lenses. When two lenses are employed it is essential that they be accurately paired, both with regard to focal-length and quality. If it is found that one is more ...
-Stereoscopic Photography. Detailed Instruction. Part 3
552. Selection Of View-Point Selection Of View-Point. The accuracy of the selection of point of view for stereoscopic work is even more important than for regular view photography. The stereoscopic ...
-Stereoscopic Photography. Detailed Instruction. Part 4
558. Depth Of Printing Depth Of Printing. Stereoscopic pictures, when made on printing-out paper, should be printed to a good depth. A light print when viewed through a stereoscope will lack in ...
-Stereoscopic Photography. Detailed Instruction. Part 5
564. Paper To Use Paper To Use. Any paper may be employed that will give good, clear, sharp detail - either printing-out or gaslight papers. Where stereoscopic pictures are made on a large scale, ...
-Chapter XXVII. Photographing Legal Documents, Insurance Applications, Etc., By Means Of The Record Outfit
566. The use of Photography for quick record work has in the past been somewhat restricted, owing to the double process involved; i. e., the first making of the negative and then from the negative ...
-Photographing Legal Documents, Insurance Applications, Etc., By Means Of The Record Outfit. Part 2
578. The Outfit The Outfit. The outfit, as pictured in Illustration No. 113, is manufactured by the Eastman Kodak Company, and consists of a long bellows camera; a cabinet; an adjustable stage (...
-Photographing Legal Documents, Insurance Applications By Means Of The Record Outfit. Part 3
586. The Dark-Room The Dark-Room. The dark-room may be made by partitioning off one end of the room, and should be large enough to permit a person to conveniently develop and wash the prints. A dark-...
-Photographing Legal Documents and Insurance Applications, By Means Of The Record Outfit. Part 4
592. Removing Exposed Paper Removing Exposed Paper. First, begin by cutting up the paper as perforated on the reel, each exposure being perforated automatically in the reel. Next, place the single ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Photography For The Courts
600. Photographic records, for use as evidence in court, are accepted in the majority of states, as well as in many foreign countries. It is vitally important that those persons connected with court ...
-Photography For The Courts. Part 2
605. Truthfulness And Accuracy Truthfulness And Accuracy. Where photographs of gaps or openings in the earth, holes in the ground, cracks in a wall, etc., are to be made in order to prove exactly ...
-Photography For The Courts. Part 3
615. Detection Of Crime Detection Of Crime. Perhaps the most important branch of photography, as applied to law and the courts, is its use in the detection of crime. It is possible for the lens to ...
-Chapter XXIX. Photographing Handwriting
620. The study of handwriting in court frequently calls for a great deal of expert testimony on either side, and is often the cause of most puzzling and contradictory statements by the various ...
-Chapter XXX. Photographs As Evidence
I. ADMISSION NOT SUBVERSIVE OF RIGHT OF CROSS-EXAMINATION. 629. Photographs are not inadmissible as evidence on the ground that they deprive the adverse party of right of cross-examination. II. WHEN...
-Chapter XXXI. Use Of Photography In The Schools
638. Introduction Introduction. It is always essential to have records of plant growth, as well as of the arrangement of apparatus used for the various experimental sciences. In the past it has been ...
-Use Of Photography In The Schools. Part 2
645. Rapidity Of Growth Rapidity Of Growth. The temperature of the room in which the specimens are kept will have much to do with the progress made in the development of the seed germ. The amount of ...
-Use Of Photography In The Schools. Part 3
649. Value Of Photographs Value Of Photographs. This photographic illustration clearly shows the actual value of photography in illustrating the progress made during the growth of the seed to a ...
-Use Of Photography In The Schools. Part 4
654. System To Employ System To Employ. Every school should be equipped with a photographic dark-room. Many educational institutions have installed a complete system for instruction in photography, ...
-Use Of Photography In The Schools. Part 5
659. Stop To Use Stop To Use. Depth of focus is a very essential factor, and in order to reproduce all portions of the subject perfectly sharp, a mediumly small stop will have to be used. F.16 or U. ...
-Chapter XXXII. Photo-Micrography
663. Introduction Introduction. Photo-micrography is the art, or process, of enlarging minute objects by means of the microscope, and reproducing the enlarged image by photog-graphy. - Century ...
-Photo-Micrography. Part 2
671. Expensive Apparatus Not Essential Expensive Apparatus Not Essential. For the student or household an expensive outfit is entirely unnecessary. Any ordinary microscope with a good solid base, ...
-Photo-Micrography. Part 3
679. Illuminants Illuminants. Photo-micrographs may be made by either daylight or any artificial light, but more uniform results will be obtained by means of artificial light, as it is not as strong ...
-Photo-Micrography. Part 4
686. Welsbach Gas Lamp With Bull's-Eye Lens Welsbach Gas Lamp With Bull's-Eye Lens. In place of the bull's-eye condenser, and where gaslight is used as the illuminant, the Welsbach gas lamp with ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Apparatus For Photo-Micrography
690. Use Of Mirror To Illuminate The Slide By Transmitted Light Use Of Mirror To Illuminate The Slide By Transmitted Light. Proper manipulation of the mirror for reflecting light is very important ...
-Apparatus For Photo-Micrography. Part 2
696. Note Note. For very critical work, where the relative color values are of utmost importance, the new Autochrome plate may be employed, which will give a transparency of the object in actual ...
-Apparatus For Photo-Micrography. Part 3
701. Bull's-Eye Condenser Bull's-Eye Condenser. This useful piece of apparatus consists of a Piano-Convex lens mounted on an arm sliding on a pillar so that with a little manipulation any required ...
-Apparatus For Photo-Micrography. Part 4
706. Focusing Focusing. When a convenient and satisfactory illuminant has been selected, the student may begin focusing the slide. The principle of focusing is to adjust its relations to the object ...
-Apparatus For Photo-Micrography. Part 5
714. Use Of The Hand Focusing Glass Use Of The Hand Focusing Glass. For some high-power work the hand focusing glass may need to be employed. With it you obtain a sharp focus on the central part of ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Photo-Micrography. Practical Manipulations For The Beginner
722. Daylight Exposures Daylight Exposures. After becoming familiar with the operating of the microscope, the manipulating of the accessories and focusing of the camera, etc., you will be ...
-Photo-Micrography. Practical Manipulations For The Beginner. Part 2
729. Plates Plates. While, ordinarily, we would recommend the use of orthochromatic plates for all microscopic work, yet for this class of work and for first experiments any ordinary plate will ...
-Photo-Micrography. Practical Manipulations For The Beginner. Part 3
734. Reproducing Colored Objects Reproducing Colored Objects. The nature of the illuminant for reproducing colored objects is immaterial. Exactly as good results can be produced with artificial ...
-Photo-Micrography. Practical Manipulations For The Beginner. Part 4
739. Photographing A Bacteria Slide Photographing A Bacteria Slide. The photographing of bacteria is quite distinctive from the ordinary use of the microscope, and this class of work is mainly ...
-Photo-Micrography. Practical Manipulations For The Beginner. Part 5
745. Developing Developing. The ordinary methods for developing, fully described in Volume II, apply as well to the development of plates exposed through the microscope. Where one is not equipped ...
-Photo-Micrography. Practical Manipulations For The Beginner. Part 6
750. Developing Developing. With your developer and fixing bath prepared and your ruby light turned low, remove the plate from the plate-holder. In doing so, stand with your back to the light, so as ...
-Chapter XXXV. Photographing Microscopic Slides For Lantern-Slide Work
766. While lantern-slide plates are frequently made from microscopic enlargements, yet, owing to the lack of distinct sharpness to the very edge, slides made from these plates do not always give ...
-Photographing Microscopic Slides For Lantern-Slide Work. Continued
772. Focusing Focusing. With the camera placed on an exact line with the microscopic slide and the bellows extended, you can obtain the focus by racking the bellows of the camera to and from the ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Making Post-Cards For Quick Delivery
776. The Post-Card Business At Resorts The Post-Card Business At Resorts. With the advent of the developing post-card, an enormous and profitable business has sprung up in the making of post-card ...
-Making Post-Cards For Quick Delivery. Part 2
784. Backgrounds Backgrounds. The backgrounds should be suitable to the location of the gallery. A pier or beach scene for a seashore resort; a mountain or waterfall background for the mountains; a ...
-Making Post-Cards For Quick Delivery. Part 3
793. Controlling The Developer For Prints And Plates Controlling The Developer For Prints And Plates. Full control of contrast is secured by varying the dilution of the developer. Always bear in ...
-Making Post-Cards For Quick Delivery. Part 4
800. Even Illumination Even Illumination. The negatives must be evenly illuminated. The proper distance from the light being equal to the diagonal of the print, the negative from which postcards are ...
-Making Post-Cards For Quick Delivery. Part 5
805. Washing Washing. After fixing, the cards should be washed by placing them on an inclined piece of glass; then with a rubber hose spray the cards for a few minutes, spraying both sides. After ...
-Making Post-Cards For Quick Delivery. Part 6
813. Cleaning Celluloid Film Cleaning Celluloid Film. As the film becomes soiled and greasy from constant use, and by coming in contact with the wet surface of the negative, which latter, not having ...
-Chapter XXXVII. Ping Pong And Penny Pictures
As a means of catching the dimes and quarters of the young element, school children and visitors at resorts, the ping pong and penny pictures were inaugurated, with the result that this class of pictu...
-Chapter XXXVIII. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Ilustration No. 2. Plate - Cramer Crown. Lens - Dallmeyer Rapid Rectilinear, 16-inch focal-length. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 11 a. m. Exposure - 1/2 second. Developer - hydroquinon. (See Page 41....
-How The Studies Illustrating Volume IX Were Made. Part 2
Illustration No. 31. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 3 p. m., bright. Exposure - 14 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See ...

Part V: Volume 10: Negative Retouching, Etching and Modeling

-Volume X. Negative Retouching, Etching and Modeling. Encyclopedic Index. Glossary. Chapter I. Negative Retouching. Introduction
1. The Object Of Negative Retouching The Object Of Negative Retouching. In delivering finished work to your customers, you do not hand them the photographic negatives, but the prints made from these ...
-Negative Retouching. Introduction. Part 2
8. Etching Etching. Etching is exactly the reverse of retouching, for by means of the etching knife, which is a very sharp steel blade, the film is shaved or scraped in proportion to the amount requi...
-Negative Retouching. Introduction. Part 3
13. Classified Subjects Classified Subjects. The subject has everything to do with the amount of work applied to the negative. For example, negatives of aged persons, whether man or woman, require le...
-Chapter II. Preparatory Instruction
15. The pencil is the agent employed, in retouching, to remove transparent or semi-transparent imperfections and blend the high-lights and shadows as well as the halftones. The pencil employed must no...
-Preparatory Instruction. Part 2
25. Applying The Retouching Dope To The Negative Applying The Retouching Dope To The Negative. The plate must be perfectly dry before applying any medium. In applying the dope to the negative the s...
-Preparatory Instruction. Part 3
31. Varnish Caution Varnish Caution. As gasoline will very easily ig- nite, it must never be handled near fire or lights of any-kind. 32. Applying The Varnish To The Negative Applying The Varnish ...
-Preparatory Instruction. Part 4
38. Retouching Desk Retouching Desk. A suitable retouching desk may be obtained from regular dealers in photographic supplies. In Illustration No. 2 is shown a very convenient easel which will close ...
-Preparatory Instruction. Part 5
43. The Reflector The Reflector. The retouching frame should be placed on a table of normal height, close to a north window, or a window on which the sun is not shining. In order to have the light re...
-Chapter III. Lesson I. General Explanations
44. The Negative The Negative. Before beginning any work upon the negative, it is of utmost importance to have a thorough understanding of the method of controlling the pencil, in order to effectivel...
-Lesson I. General Explanations. Continued
50. Sharpening The Lead Sharpening The Lead. Insert one of the leads (preferably an HHH) in the holder, leaving about one inch projecting from the end of the holder, and screw the clasp moderately ti...
-Chapter IV. Lesson II. Pencil Exercises
55. Control Of The Pencil Control Of The Pencil. Before attempting any-work, even on the practice-prints, it will not only be necessary to understand how to hold the pencil properly, but you must als...
-Lesson II. Pencil Exercises. Part 2
65. Practice-Prints Practice-Prints. The principal object of the preceding exercises was to limber the fingers and to train you in the control of the different pencil movements. In these exercises yo...
-Lesson II. Pencil Exercises. Part 3
68. The Stroke The Stroke. Be careful to avoid working heavily on the practice-print, and again exercise care that you do not work beyond the blemish. Use any movement you see fit, following the line...
-Chapter V. Lesson III. Practice-Charts
74. Introduction Introduction. From the past instruction you should have learned the different movements of the pencil, and also have become thoroughly familiar with the negative as compared with the...
-Lesson III. Practice-Charts. Part 2
79. Arranging The Retouching Desk Arranging The Retouching Desk. The retouching desk, as previously instructed, should be placed on a table facing a window, a northern exposure preferred. The correct...
-Lesson III. Practice-Charts. Part 3
84. When The Lead Is Properly Applied When The Lead Is Properly Applied. The lead is properly applied, when by sitting erect at the easel and viewing the work from this distance the effect of the pen...
-Chapter VI. Difficulties - Lesson III - Practice-Charts
89. What Lead To Use What Lead To Use. The beginner will find a moderately hard lead the best to employ, as his touch will be somewhat heavy, and if a soft lead is used the pencil strokes will show a...
-Difficulties - Lesson III - Practice-Charts. Part 2
92. Retouching Varnish Not Working Properly Retouching Varnish Not Working Properly. While the practice-charts may be flowed with retouching varnish, yet it is advisable to use the retouching dope fo...
-Difficulties - Lesson III - Practice-Charts. Part 3
96. Surface Of Practice-Charts Tacky After Applying Retouching Dope Surface Of Practice-Charts Tacky After Applying Retouching Dope. This is because you have applied too much dope, or did not rub it ...
-Difficulties - Lesson III - Practice-Charts. Part 4
104. Why Pencil Strokes Show Why Pencil Strokes Show. (a) The pencil is too soft. Use a harder one. For the beginner an HHH is preferable, (b) Too much pressure is brought to bear on the pencil. You ...
-Chapter VII. Lesson IV. Applying The Lead To The Regular Negative
114. After diligent work on the practice-charts employed for the previous instruction, and having a better knowledge of what is required for the proper handling of the work, you may now proceed to app...
-Lesson IV. Applying The Lead To The Regular Negative. Continued
122. The Position The Position. Retouching requires quite a steady hand, and to acquire this, an easy, unrestrained sitting position is necessary. Select a chair of a height that will permit of the e...
-Chapter VIII. Difficulties - Lesson IV. Removing Imperfections On Negatives
139. Note Note. Many of the difficulties which may be encountered in preparing the work of this lesson are from the same cause as whose given in previous instruction, and in case you meet with any di...
-Difficulties - Lesson IV. Removing Imperfections On Negatives. Part 2
145. Lead Scratching Lead Scratching. (a) Sometimes there are impurities or hard places in the lead which cause scratches. If these occur you may remove them by rotating the pencil on the piece of em...
-Difficulties - Lesson IV. Removing Imperfections On Negatives. Part 3
149. Wrist And Forearm Become Tired Wrist And Forearm Become Tired. It is advisable to have a cushion under the elbow, which will raise your arm to exactly the right position for work. If this is not...
-Chapter IX. Lesson V. Blending
154. By blending is meant the linking together (uniting) of the different blemishes which have been evened up with their immediate surroundings, and bringing them gradually into correct relation with ...
-Lesson V. Blending. Continued
170. Working Around The Face Working Around The Face. To a certain extent the face is round; but the negative being a flat surface, all the features appear on the same plane. The nose, for instance, ...
-Chapter X. Difficulties - Lesson V - Blending
178. Strokes Of Lead Showing Too Prominently Strokes Of Lead Showing Too Prominently. Caused (a) by bearing on too heavily; (6) by using too soft a lead; or (c) by sitting too close to your work. (a)...
-Chapter XI. General Modeling. Introduction
185. When posing and lighting the subject and making the negative, the photographer should have put forth every effort to secure the very best lighting effect possible, and to produce a ...
-General Modeling. Introduction. Continued
197. Character Lines Of The Individual Must Be Retained Character Lines Of The Individual Must Be Retained. In modeling, there is one feature in particular which is very often neglected and entirely ...
-Chapter XII. Lesson VI. Modeling The Forehead
203. By this time you should have learned to properly apply the lead in order to remove blemishes, and also should have a fairly good idea of the general blending as explained in the preceding ...
-Lesson VI. Modeling The Forehead. Continued
209. Irregular High-Lights Irregular High-Lights. Sometimes, on account of the shape of the forehead, or because of poor lighting, the high-lights may be broken and irregular. They must be united to ...
-Chapter XIII. Lesson VII. Modeling The Forehead. Practice Work
230. For this lesson you are expected to work only on the forehead. Try and make the proof of your work appear as near as possible like the figures on the right hand side of Illustration No. 13. You ...
-Lesson VII. Modeling The Forehead. Practice Work. Continued
236. Retouching The Forehead In Profile Views Retouching The Forehead In Profile Views. In a profile view of the face the highest point of light on the forehead will rest almost directly above the ...
-Chapter XIV. Lesson VIII. Modeling The Cheek
239. After having completed the modeling of the forehead, proceed to the cheek on the light side of the face. Before attempting to place any strokes on the negative, take a general survey of this ...
-Lesson VIII. Modeling The Cheek. Continued
247. Blending And Connecting Sections Of The Face Blending And Connecting Sections Of The Face. In working toward the temple you will come to the place where you stopped retouching on the forehead. ...
-Chapter XV. Lesson IX. Modeling The Cheek. Practice Work
250. Having modeled the forehead, your next step will be the modeling of the cheek. The prominence of the cheek-bone determines the outline of the cheek. Sometimes this prominence is very marked and ...
-Lesson IX. Modeling The Cheek. Practice Work. Continued
257. Profile Views Profile Views. When retouching the cheek of a portrait posed in profile, the highest point of light will still be on the cheek-bone, but much more on the side of the cheek and ...
-Chapter XVI. Lesson X. Modeling The Lips And Chin
261. The Lips And Mouth The Lips And Mouth. The mental temperament indicated by the outline of the mouth and by the elevation and expansion of the corner of the lips in particular, can be very much ...
-Chapter XVII. Lesson XL Modeling The Lips And Chin. Practice Work
281. Generally in the front view of the face there is a strong high-light on the upper lip on the side nearest the source of light, and in this high-light you should begin to remove the blemishes and ...
-Chapter XVIII. Lesson XII. Modeling The Nose, Eyebrows And Shadow Cheek
288. The nose, being the most prominent feature of the face requires special care when modeling. Usually it is the dividing line of light, the bridge receiving a strong high-light, extending the full ...
-Lesson XII. Modeling The Nose, Eyebrows And Shadow Cheek. Part 2
294. Crooked Noses Crooked Noses. In the case of a crooked nose, if it is large and prominent it will be advisable to cut away the ridge or prominence by etching. Instruction for this work is given ...
-Lesson XII. Modeling The Nose, Eyebrows And Shadow Cheek. Part 3
303. Crow's Feet Crow's Feet. At the outer corner of the eyes in persons of matured age, as well as in some young individuals, lines running in a fan-like shape will often be found. These lines are ...
-Lesson XII. Modeling The Nose, Eyebrows And Shadow Cheek. Part 4
312. The Shadow Cheek The Shadow Cheek. The shadow cheek should be left until the very last, as it is generally in deepest shadow. After having worked on the high-lights and halftones, your touch ...
-Chapter XIX. Difficulties - Modeling
319. The Forehead Appears Flat After Blending The Forehead Appears Flat After Blending. You failed to start your work at the highest point of light, or you have not used a light enough stroke in the ...
-Difficulties - Modeling. Part 2
324. Harsh Line On Upper Edge Of Eyebrow Harsh Line On Upper Edge Of Eyebrow. This will be caused by your working too close to the eyebrow. There is usually a soft blending of tone on the forehead ...
-Difficulties - Modeling. Part 3
329. Cheeks Appear Puffed Cheeks Appear Puffed. This may be caused by entirely removing the lines under the eyes and those running down from the nose toward the corners of the mouth. If these lines ...
-Chapter XX. Lesson XIII. Modeling Rembrandt And Shadow Lightings
335. The general method of procedure in removing blemishes, blending and modeling of Rembrandt Lightings, as well as all Shadow Lightings, is exactly the same as that given in the preceding lessons ...
-Chapter XXI. Lesson XIV. Elementary Etching
342. In etching the negative you perform work the results of which are just the opposite to retouching or penciling; therefore, before attempting to etch it is essential that you be able to retouch ...
-Lesson XIV. Elementary Etching. Continued
349. Use Of Knife Use Of Knife. The principal difficulty that beginners will experience is in the proper handling of the etching knife. You use the knife for the same purpose that you use reducing ...
-Chapter XXII. Difficulties - Elementary Etching
360. The Object Of Etching Patches In The Background The Object Of Etching Patches In The Background. The object of etching patches in the background is merely to train you in the proper ...
-Chapter XXIII. Lesson XV. Reducing Paste
365. While the etcher is indispensable for many-purposes, yet a great deal of the work formerly performed with the knife can be accomplished much easier, quicker, and more smoothly with the Schriever ...
-Lesson XV. Reducing Paste. Continued
369. Applying The Reducer To Small Parts Applying The Reducer To Small Parts. A very convenient way to apply the reducer to small parts and narrow places is to make a stump by covering the tapered ...
-Chapter XXIV. Lesson XVI. Practical Use Of The Etching Knife
377. There are times when portions of the face contain strong high-lights and undue prominences, which, if left in the negative, will give a very displeasing appearance. If you attempt to build up to ...
-Lesson XVI. Practical Use Of The Etching Knife. Part 2
383. Shaping Jaw-Bone Shaping Jaw-Bone. It will be necessary to shape the outline of the jaw-bone and remove a portion of it in cases where it protrudes and causes an imperfect angular prominence, ...
-Lesson XVI. Practical Use Of The Etching Knife. Part 3
387. Removing High-Light On Under Lip Removing High-Light On Under Lip. Owing to the shape of the average lip, the outer edge being white, the subject must be properly handled when the negative is ...
-Chapter XXV. Difficulties - Practical Use Of Etching Knife
395. Etched Portions Show In Print Etched Portions Show In Print. It is often the case that, when high-lights have been reduced with the etcher, the etched portions appear to blend perfectly with ...
-Difficulties - Practical Use Of Etching Knife. Part 2
398. Etching Paste Will Not Reduce Etching Paste Will Not Reduce. (a) If the etching paste will not reduce, the trouble lies in the paste. It must be made from vaseline, and not regular oil. If the ...
-Difficulties - Practical Use Of Etching Knife. Part 3
403. Adding Hair On Bald Spots Adding Hair On Bald Spots. Where the skin is bare, some hair should be etched on, using the point of the etcher. Do not make the lines too harsh, however. They must be ...
-Chapter XXVI. Lesson XVII. Modeling Necks, Arms And Hands
407. In retouching and modeling low necks we have one of the most dreaded and difficult portions of the negative to work upon, for it requires a considerable amount of work and very careful handling ...
-Lesson XVII. Modeling Necks, Arms And Hands. Part 2
418. Arms Arms. The proper handling, or rather modeling, of the arms and hands is very often neglected in retouching. The more general imperfections, blemishes, etc., are always removed, but proper ...
-Lesson XVII. Modeling Necks, Arms And Hands. Part 3
423. Practice Work Practice Work. For your practice work you should provide yourself with some negatives similar to the ones from which the prints in Illustration No. 13 were made. If you have none ...
-Chapter XXVII. Lesson XVIII. Advanced Modeling Of Low-Neck Subjects
426. For the illustrations used in this chapter we have selected a front, also a profile, view of a pretty subject, possessing good lines and a good figure, but for special use in this instruction ...
-Lesson XVIII. Advanced Modeling Of Low-Neck Subjects. Part 2
432. Modeling The Eye And Eyebrows Modeling The Eye And Eyebrows. The next Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Illustration No. 26. Subject in Decollete - Second Stage - Etching and Retouching. See Paragraph 431. ...
-Lesson XVIII. Advanced Modeling Of Low-Neck Subjects. Part 3
436. Nose, Lips And Chin Nose, Lips And Chin. We next proceed to the nose, then to the lips, and finally to the chin. You will observe in Illustration No. 25, front view of the subject, the nose ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Lesson XIX. Etching And Altering Draperies And Figures
441. It is almost always necessary to alter the drapery to some extent in the average portrait negative. No matter how careful the drapery may have been handled by the photographer, some little fold ...
-Lesson XIX. Etching And Altering Draperies And Figures. Part 2
447. Draperies Draperies. When soft goods, such as chiffon, etc., are used for draping the figure, the material, being so soft, the folds are not very conspicuous. A little work on the folds with a ...
-Lesson XIX. Etching And Altering Draperies And Figures. Part 3
452. Altering Drapery And Adding On Regular Waist Altering Drapery And Adding On Regular Waist. In Fig. 1, of Illustration No. 29, is shown a portion of a portrait of a lady posed in an evening gown....
-Lesson XIX. Etching And Altering Draperies And Figures. Part 4
457. Altering Men's Clothing - Shaping And Outlining Figure Altering Men's Clothing - Shaping And Outlining Figure. There are times also with men's clothing when considerable alterations are ...
-Lesson XIX. Etching And Altering Draperies And Figures. Part 5
468. Shortening The Length Of The Nose Shortening The Length Of The Nose. You will also observe in Fig. 2, that the nose appears quite long, and we have shortened this feature by etching away a ...
-Chapter XXIX. Lesson XX. Hats, Ribbons And Hair
472. Each portion of the picture space should be given attention by the retoucher, as each part of the negative will require a certain amount of hand-work in order that it may be in proper condition ...
-Lesson XX. Hats, Ribbons And Hair. Continued
477. Ribbons Ribbons. Ribbons in the hair should receive the same treatment as draperies. The high-lights if not strong enough may be accentuated by the application of lead. On the other hand if the ...
-Chapter XXX. Lesson XXI. Building Up Moved And Out-Of-Focus Images
483. A competent retoucher can do much to save faulty negatives. Not infrequently a subject when being photographed will move during the exposure, causing double lines of the image, or an out-of-...
-Chapter XXXI. Lesson XXII. Etching Single Figures From Groups
490. The separating of single figures from groups occurs most frequently when copying from old group pictures, yet there are times when single pictures are desired from group pictures, perhaps only ...
-Chapter XXXII. Lesson XXIII. Etching Thick Necks
496. With very fleshy people the neck is usually quite thick and sometimes quite baggy. There are extreme cases of goiter necks, which appear more conspicuously in the photograph than they really are ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Lesson XXIV. Opening Closed Eyes
499. The eye is the most delicate feature of the face to work upon, for unless this feature is carefully treated there is every chance for loss of likeness. Improperly handled, this feature also ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Lesson XXV. Straightening Crossed Eyes
514. Of the more numerous corrections made to the eye, we find none so frequent as the straightening of crossed eyes. Much can be done, however, in the making of the negative to assist the retoucher ...
-Chapter XXXV. Lesson XXVI. Etching Statuettes
520. Departing from the regular commercial retouching work, it is possible to produce some very pleasing and artistic effects which are always appreciated by the picture-loving public. For special ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Lesson XXVII. Marble Statue
527. In Illustration No. 36 we present an entirely different class of work. In this case we make a marble statue from a living subject, with all the likeness retained. In making a negative for such ...
-Chapter XXXVII. Character Expressed By The Shape Of The Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Chin And Mouth
537. The elements of human nature - the characters of individuals - are expressed by certain faculties located in the head. When the mind is concentrated on a particular thought, a certain part of ...
-Character Expressed By Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Chin And Mouth Shape. Part 2
544. The Nose The Nose. There is an almost endless variety of shapes of noses and these different shapes very truthfully tell the character of the individual, but as previously stated, one should ...
-Character Expressed By Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Chin And Mouth Shape. Part 3
548. Applications Applications. This chart of noses is important to every retoucher. In fact, few retouchers realize the value of knowing how to properly represent or retain in the negative the ...
-Character Expressed By Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Chin And Mouth Shape. Part 4
552. General Shape Of Head General Shape Of Head. Although not of so great importance to the retoucher, yet it is of value to know the most desirable shape for the head if the better characteristics ...
-Character Expressed By Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Chin And Mouth Shape. Part 5
557. Ears Ears. Especial attention should be given profile views of the face, or such views which show the shape of the ear quite distinctly. Reference to Illustration No. 40 will show you the ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Lesson XXVIII. Babies And Aged People
565. The faces of babies and aged people require very-little retouching. In fact, if the photographer has properly-lighted and posed his subject there is not one case in ten in which it will be ...
-Chapter XXXIX. Lesson XXIX. Worked-In Backgrounds
574. The large collection of ordinary stock backgrounds of different designs, usually seen in the better class studios, is rapidly disappearing, and in their stead plain painted or felt grounds are ...
-Lesson XXIX. Worked-In Backgrounds. Continued
582. Note Note. When mixing the crayon and pumice, mix them in an ordinary dry-plate box, and only a little at a time. Spread the crayon and pumice well over the bottom of the box, so as to enable ...
-Suitable Backgrounds For Different Style Pictures
585. In selecting suitable backgrounds to be worked into any negative, one can do no better than study some of the reproductions of the great masters. The different backgrounds on their work very ...
-Chapter XL. Lesson XXX. Retouching Landscape And Architectural Negatives
594. A very mistaken idea seems to prevail among a large class of workers, that retouching applies only to portrait negatives. It is a fact that there are very few negatives produced that could not ...
-Lesson XXX. Retouching Landscape And Architectural Negatives. Part 2
602. Reducing Hight-Lights And Fog Reducing Hight-Lights And Fog. The process just mentioned can be employed to remove fog and halation, and to reduce high-lights or a streak of light crossing the ...
-Lesson XXX. Retouching Landscape And Architectural Negatives. Part 3
608. Retouching Trees Retouching Trees. To successfully retouch trees, you should observe their appearance in nature and use the correct form of touch to bring them out properly, just as you would ...
-Lesson XXX. Retouching Landscape And Architectural Negatives. Part 4
622. Splatter Work Splatter Work. There are times when it may be desirable to apply splashes of opaque to lighten portions on the negative or to represent stones, flowers, snow, etc. The best ...
-Lesson XXX. Retouching Landscape And Architectural Negatives. Part 5
627. Avoid Over-Retouching Which Produces False Effects Avoid Over-Retouching Which Produces False Effects. It is a very easy matter to overdo dodging or retouching landscape negatives, and so ...
-Negative Varnish
There are a great many different kinds of negative varnishes - some are applied to the negative cold, while for the application of others it is necessary to heat the negative. The following formulae w...
-Removing Varnish From Negatives
Immerse the negative in mythelated alcohol for five minutes, and rub with cotton. If any resin remains, add a little ammonia to the alcohol and place the negative in it, rubbing with the cotton. Rinse...
-Chapter XLI. Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints
630. Small particles of dust on the sensitive film of the unexposed plate will, if allowed to remain there, retard the action of the light when an exposure is made, so that when the plate is placed ...
-Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints. Part 2
636. Air-Bells Air-Bells. Dusting before development with a brush is usually valueless, and the practical worker seldom performs this operation. Air-bells are much more likely to occur than pin-...
-Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints. Part 3
642. Spotting With The Pencil Spotting With The Pencil. Frequently there will be numerous very small spots. These may be much more effectively removed by touching them out with a finely pointed ...
-Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints. Part 4
647. Spotting Prints Spotting Prints. Black spots on the negative cause white spots on the print, for they keep the light from acting upon the sensitive silver in the emulsion of the paper. These ...
-Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints. Part 5
654. Spotting Sepia Prints Spotting Sepia Prints. Selecting the proper tint for the spotting of sepia prints is the most important point to consider. The average sepia print, however, may be matched ...
-Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints. Part 6
661. Repairing Cracked And Broken Negatives Repairing Cracked And Broken Negatives. The breaking or cracking of a negative is not of infrequent occurrence even in the best of well-regulated studios, ...
-Lesson XXXI. Spotting Negatives And Prints. Part 7
667. Torn Film On Negative Torn Film On Negative. Where the film has been torn away from the glass by careless manipulation during development, fixing or washing, it can be repaired by carefully ...
-Chapter XLII. Practical Studio Retouching
670. Introduction Introduction. It is necessary that the fundamental principles of retouching, etching and modeling be thoroughly understood, and that you become capable of applying these with ...
-Chapter XLIII. Lettering Negatives And Prints
689. Negatives Negatives. It is often desirable to place a title of some nature on negatives or prints, and to accomplish this, great care must be taken to form the letters neatly. Considerable ...
-Lettering Negatives And Prints. Part 2
693. Red Prussiate Process For Titling Negatives Red Prussiate Process For Titling Negatives. The most practical method of all, and one that is simple to execute is as follows: Write or draw the ...
-Lettering Negatives And Prints. Part 3
701. Restraint Restraint. The title must be perfectly legible and in harmony with the subject, yet it must be placed on the print with some restraint, both as to size and style. The letters should ...
-Formula For Stripping Negatives
The negative should be first well hardened in Formalin...................................................... 1/2 oz Water................................ 8 ozs. ...

Part VI: Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms

-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms
The Roman numerals refer to Volume. The number following refers to paragraphs in all cases, excepting where the word Page precedes the number. When a subject is exhaustively treated upon in a volume...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 2
Achromatic Lens (See Lens, Achromatic.) Acid A sour substance. Chemically, it is a compound containing one or more atoms of hydrogen. Turns blue vegetable colors to red. Just the opposite in action...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 3
Acid Hydrochloric HC1 - IV, 552. Muriatic Acid or Spirits of Salt. Clear, colorless, pungent, fuming liquid; strongly acid; unpleasant smell. Should be kept in a glass stoppered bottle. In its impure...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 4
Acid Short Stop Bath A bath used between the developer and the fixing bath to stop action of developer on print. It also helps to avoid stain and uneven development. Acid Sulphuric H2SO4 - II. Oil ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 5
Agent That which possesses the power of acting or producing effects upon anything else. Pyro is a developing agent; Hypo is a fixing agent, etc. Air-Bells Particles or bubbles of air between surfac...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 6
Alum A12K2(SO4)4 + 24H2O - I, 205; II, 288, Page 139; IV. Potash Alum, or Aluminum and Potassium Sulphate Large, colorless crystals or very fine, white powder. Astringent taste, acid reaction. Solu...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 7
Ammonia Water NH3 + H2O. The aqueous solution of ammonia gas is a clear, colorless liquid, the specific gravity of which decreases as the ammonia content increases. For analytical purposes two solut...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 8
Ammonium Sulphide (NH4)HS. Ammonium Sulphydrate, or Sulphuret of Ammonia. Colorless, crystalline masses; turning rapidly yellow on exposure to air. Soluble in water. Used as a blackening agent with ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 9
Antidote II. A substance which has the effect of counteracting poison Aperture The size of the opening in the lens through which light is allowed to pass into the camera. Aplanatic (See Lens, Apl...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 10
Background The most remote portion of a landscape, or the space and objects behind the principal figures. In portraiture an artificial background is made of plain or painted cloth, canvas, or stout p...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 11
Beginner's Difficulties Behind-the-lens Shutter (See Shutter, Behind-the-Lens.) Bellows An expanding and collapsible leather body provided in most modern cameras to connect the front and back port...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 12
Blisters on Developing Papers Blisters on Dry Plates II. 77. Avoided by immersing the dry plate, immediately upon their first appearance, in a solution of powdered alum or chrome alum, or a weak so...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 13
To Dry Bottles Pour some dry mustard seed into the bottle and shake well. The seeds soon absorb the moisture and leave the interior of the bottle clean and dry. Bottle Stoppers Alkalies attack the ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 14
Bronzing In silver printing, as well as in printing collodion and platinum papers, the hardest or darker portions assume an olive-green color after prolonged exposure. This is called bronzing of the ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 15
Calcium Sulphate CaSO4 + 2H2O. Plaster of Paris; Gypsum. Fine, white powder. Soluble, with difficulty, in water. If mixed with a small quantity of water, so as to form a paste, it will gradually thi...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 16
Magazine Camera A box form of camera arranged to hold a dozen plates. A plate is brought into focal position by means of a button or release. After exposure the plate drops forward and falls to the b...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 17
Cap A loose leather cover for the lens. Caramel Carbolic Acid (See Acid Carbolic.) Carbon C. Carbon for photographic purposes is usually prepared from lampblack. Is very stable. The basis for t...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 18
Caustic Potash (See Potassium Hydroxide.) Caustic Soda Celloidin Pure gun cotton with some solvent. Prepared by Schering for making collodion. As celloidin is of very uniform texture and all impur...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 19
Chlorate of Potassium (See Potassium Chlorate.) Chloride of Calcium (See Calcium Chloride.) Chloride of Gold (See Gold Chloride.) Chloride of Lime (See Lime Chloride.) Chloride of Mercury (Se...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 20
Collinear Lens (See Lens, Collinear.) Collodio-Albumen Process The first dry-plate process in practical use. Had the disadvantage, however, of being slow. Collodio-Chloride Paper (See Paper Collo...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 21
Color Screen (See Color Filter.) Prismatic Colors (See Prismatic Colors.) Coma A defect in a lens caused by incomplete correction of the spherical aberration of oblique rays. It is a pear-shaped ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 22
Copper Sulphate CuSO4 + 5H2O - II. Copperas; Blue Stone; Cupric Sulphate; Blue Vitriol Large, deep-blue crystals, slowly efflorescent in dry air; stringent, metallic, styptic taste. Soluble in 2.6 ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 23
Developing-Room A room from which all actinic light has been excluded and in which the sensitive plates and papers are handled during the process of changing, developing and printing. For ordinary pl...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 24
Diamidophenol (See Amidol.) Diamond A small piece of diamond mounted in a handle used for cutting glass. Dianol Lumiere's preparation of diamidophenol, or amidol. Diaphragm Originally a plate ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 25
Distilled Water (See Water, Distilled.) Distortion A defect which will occur when photographing objects having perpendicular lines, if the camera is tilted upward and the ground-glass is not kept p...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 26
Vulcanized Rubber Ebonite. Vulcanite A hard, black, ebony-like substance, formed by combining sulphur and India rubber. Used for developing dishes, dippers, in the collodion process, slides for plate...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 27
Enlarging The process of reproducing large pictures from small negatives or prints. Either artificial light or daylight may be employed. Epsom Salts (See Magnesium Sulphate.) Equivalent Focus III...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 28
Under Exposure 1; II. Sensitive materials, such as plates or papers are underexposed, if they do not receive a sufficient amount of light action. (See Exposure.) Extension The distance to which th...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 29
Curvature of Field (See Curvature of Field.) Flatness of Field (See Flatness of Field.) Field of a Lens VI. (See Lens, Field of.) Film (a) A term applied to the sensitive emulsion or coating on...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 30
Fixed Focus Lens (See Lens, Fixed Focus.) Fixing The process of removing the unreduced silver salts from a negative or print. Sodium hyposulphite is generally employed for this purpose. (See Sodium...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 31
Diffusion of Focus When an image is not sharp, or in other words, when the image is dull or spread out, it is said to be diffused. Certain portrait lenses are so constructed as to render a slightly h...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 32
Formula A chemical term used to denote the collection of various compounds, together with their quantities, which are required to make up certain solutions. Formulae Plural of Formula Freezing Th...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 33
Crown Glass Made the same as ordinary window glass with the exception that greater care is exercised in carefully selecting the various materials for making it. Flint Glass Manufactured in a simila...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 34
Graduate A conical-shaped glass with a graduated scale on the side for measuring solutions. Grain. (a) The texture of dry-plate emulsion, or of sensitized paper. (b) The unit of English weight. Gra...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 35
Half-Tone (a) The shades or tints between the highest points of light and the deepest shadows of an image; (b) a copper or zinc plate on which is made a reproduction of a photograph, the half-tones b...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 36
Roll Holder An attachment usually employed for holding roll films. It consists principally of a wooden box having a spool in each end. The film is unwound from one spool onto another to a sufficient ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 37
Hyposulphite of Soda (See Sodium Hyposulphite.) Ice Water frozen into a solid mass. Water expands when in the act of freezing. Ice is very essential in warm weather for keeping the various photogra...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 38
India Rubber Solution (See Solution, India Rubber.) Indigo A vegetable coloring matter. Dark, copperish-red, semi-metallic mass. When powdered, is deep blue in color. Insoluble in water, cold alcoh...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 39
Intensity Ratio The relation of the diameter of the aperture of the lens to its focal length. The focal length divided by the diameter of the stop equals the intensity ratio. Invisible Image (See I...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 40
Lampblack A fine carbon formed by the condensation of the smoke of burning oil, pitch, or resinous substance, in a chimney terminating in a cone of cloth. Lampblack is a basis for the majority of bla...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 41
Back Combination Lens The portion of a doublet lens located nearest the ground-glass. In most cases, when used without the front combination, it has a focal length almost double that of the complete ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 42
Fixed Focus Lens A lens is said to have a fixed focus when near and distant objects are in focus on the ground-glass at the same time, thus doing away with the necessity of altering the distance betw...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 43
Rapid Rectilinear Lens A lens having a fairly large working aperture and free from distortion, having been corrected for spherical aberration, thus giving straight lines; i. e., the lines of building...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 44
Astigmatism Cut a circular disc of white paper about three inches in diameter, and attach it to a black background. Focus this disc on the center of the ground-glass. Turn the camera until the disc i...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 45
Spherical Aberration Securely fasten a sheet of newspaper to a perfectly flat surface, and then sharply focus the camera in the center. If upon examining the sides of the paper the letters are indist...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 46
Diffusion of Liquids The gradual mixing or diffusing of one liquid into the other when placed in contact with each other. Litmus Paper (See Paper, Litmus.) Liter A Metric measure of volume. Lon...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 47
Magnification Degree of enlargement. A term principally employed in telephotography and photo-micrography. Manganese Sulphate MnSO4 + 4H2O. Transparent, pale, rose-red, efflorescent prisms; bitter...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 48
Exposure Meter (See Actinometer.) Methylated Alcohol. (See Alcohol.) Methylated Spirit (See Alcohol.) Metol (C6H3 [OH] CH3 NACHS)2 H2SO4. Monomethylpara-amidometacresol Sulphate. White powder. S...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 49
Molecular Weight A weight of the smallest particle that can exist. Molecular weight is ascertained by adding together the weights of all the atoms of the various elements, which have united to form t...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 50
Yellow Naphthol Orange-yellow powder. Soluble in water. Used principally for making ray filters. Narrow-Angle Lens - III, 289. (See Angle, Narrow.) Negative The term applied to the metallic silver...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 51
Object Finder A device used on the mechanical stage of a microscope to mark the position in the field of view. Object Glass The lens in a telescope or microscope placed nearest to the object. In th...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 52
Orthostigmatic Lens (See Lens, Orthostigmatic.) Ortol C6H4 (OH) NHCH3HCl - II; IV. Methylorthoamidolphenol. A yellowish-white crystalline substance soluble in water; resembles pyro in action, but m...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 53
Panoramic Camera (See Camera, Panoramic.) Paper The paper base upon which various emulsions are placed for printing processes must be specially prepared in order that they may be as chemically pure...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 54
Self-Toning Paper A paper which, after printing, requires only fixing. In the majority of papers a brown tone is the only one obtainable, although there are on the market some self-toning papers that...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 55
Pastel Portarit Usually an enlarged photograph worked over with colored chalk prepared by mixing fine pipe-clay, gum, water, and the required pigment. Patent A grant by a government to the author o...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 56
Plane Perspective The surface on which the picture is thrown, or the transparent surface or plane through which the object represented may be supposed to be viewed. Persulphate of Ammonia (See Ammo...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 57
Flashlight Photography A branch of photography whereby instantaneous pictures are made at night by the aid of flash powder in some form placed in a convenient receptacle. Floral Photography Pin-Hol...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 58
Dry Plates Plates of glass coated with an emulsion composed of gelatin and sensitive silver salts. This emulsion is extremely sensitive to light, which makes it possible to place the dry-plate in the...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 59
Platinum Chloride Platinic - PtCl4. Platinum Tetrachloride, Platinum Perchloride, or Platinic Chloride. Brownish-red crystals. Soluble in water, alcohol and ether. Used chiefly in platinum toning....
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 60
Positive Lens (See Lens, Positive.) Potash Caustic (See Potassium Hydroxide.) Potassium K. A mineral. Fresh cut surface has silvery luster, rapidly passing to bluish or gray. Caution. Keep cover...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 61
Potassium Dichromate (See Potassium Bichromate.) Potassium Ferric Oxalate Fe2(C2O4)3 + 3K2C2O4 + 6H2O. Emerald-green crystals. Soluble in water. Used in conjunction with sodium sulphite and hyposul...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 62
Tests for Potassium Salts Platinic chloride added to solutions containing potassium salts gives a yellow, crystalline precipitate. Potassium Sulphate K2SO4. White, hard crystals. Soluble in 10 par...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 63
Printing-Out Paper, or P. O. P A name given to gelatino-chloride paper, due to the image printing out fully when submitted to the action of light. Backing for Prints A paper coated with a collodion...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 64
Quantitative Analysis The chemical examination of bodies with a view to ascertain in what proportions certain substances are contained in other substances. Quart One-fourth of a gallon. Quarter-Pl...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 65
Ream 480 sheets of paper made up into 20 quires of 24 sheets each. The paper may be of any dimension. Reaumur Thermometer (See Thermometer, Reaumur.) Re-Crystallize To crystallize again. Rectif...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 66
Relief (a) The degree of atmosphere or distance expressed in a photograph. (b) The height or the projection of a figure or feature from the ground or plane on which it is formed. Ex. The metallic sil...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 67
Reversed Negatives (See Negatives, Reversed.) Reversing Back (See Back, Reversible.) Revolving Back (See Back, Revolving.) Revolving Background (See Background, Revolving.) Rising and Falling ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 68
Haloid Salts The term haloid salts is applied to four elementary chemicals, which form a group whose chemical properties are more closely connected by their similarity than those of any other group o...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 69
Sensitive Capable of being altered by the action of light. Sensitiveness A term used in connection with plates and papers designating the amount of time required for a certain strength of light to ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 70
Multi-speed Shutter A between-the-lens shutter of such mechanical construction that exposures as rapid as 1-2000 of a second can be made. Complete description is given in the above reference. Pneuma...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 71
Silver Chloride AgCl White powder; blackens on exposure to light. Soluble in solutions of ammonium, potassium hyposulphite and in potassium cyanide. Used largely in the sensitizing emulsions of the ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 72
Silvering Mirrors (See Mirror, Silvering.) Single Lens (See Lens, Single.) Size A viscous solution made by boiling shreds of leather, parchment, etc., in water and then purifying it. Also from co...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 73
Snap Shot An instantaneous exposure, owing to the shortness of which it is necessary to use a shutter of some description. Snow Photography The greatest difficulty in making snow scenes is the dang...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 74
Sodium Carbonate Dried - Na2CO3. White dry powder containing about 80% sodium carbonate. Used the same as sodium carbonate crystals. Sodium Carbonate Anhydrous - Na2CO3. White powder; being from ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 75
Test for Presence of Sodium Hyposulphite Should one desire to test prints or plates to see if all hypo has been eliminated, the following solution is recommended: Prepare a little starch paste by boi...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 76
Sodium Sulphite Dried - Na2SO3. A white powder containing from 85 to 90 percent of sodium sulphite. The best form of sodium sulphite to use, as it works better and its purity is more certain than th...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 77
10% Solution A ten-per-cent solution is made by dissolving one part of a substance in ten parts water. Spatula An instrument similar to a knife, having a thin blade with a round end, used for mixin...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 78
Stereoscope An instrument for viewing stereoscopic views. Stereoscopic Views Two views made from slightly different view-points of one particular subject and mounted side by side on one mount. Gene...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 79
Sulphuret of Carbon (See Carbon Disulphide.) Sulphuric Acid (See Acid Sulphuric.) Sulphurous Acid (See Acid Sulphurous.) Sulphur Toning A method of producing sepia or warm tones on bromide prin...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 80
Test for Oxalates (See Oxalates, Test for.) Test for Potassium Salts (See Potassium Salts, Test for.) Test for Silver Salts (See Silver Salts, Test for.) Test for Presence of Hypo (See Sodium H...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 81
Transparency (a) Spoken of a substance through which rays of light can pass, and through which objects are visible. (b) A positive picture on glass. A lantern-slide is a transparency. Trichromatic P...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 82
Celluloid Varnish Celluloid.................................... 14 grs. Amyl Alcohol........................... 1 oz. Acetone.................................... ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 83
Retouching Medium X. The mediums recommended in the regular retouching lessons have been found most suitable for all practical purposes, but should it be desired to experiment with other varnishes, a...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 84
Ventilation It is very important that the photographic finishing rooms be perfectly ventilated. Especially is this true of the dark-room. The proper method for accomplishing this will be found in the...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 85
Water Color Water color is color pigment dissolved in water and used for the coloring or tinting of photographs, lantern-slides, etc., as well as for painting what is known as water-color pictures. ...
-Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 86
Paraffin Wax (See Paraffin.) Sealing Wax (See Sealing Wax.) Apothecaries Weight The weight by which formulae are usually, and most conveniently, made up. Atomic Weight Atomic weight is the rela...









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