This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Animals In Landscape Photographs. When making pictures of pastoral subjects, cattle, horses and sheep often prove useful, either as providing a chief motive, or for carrying on spots of light to break up an uninteresting space. Although they might be amiable to control, yet they are just as easily frightened and especially is this true of sheep. When once unrest seizes them, attempts at picture making may as well be abandoned for a time.
609. Some animals appear to be indifferent to strangers so long as they are not required to move, whereas others are wild and shy and require most careful stalking if any degree of pictorial success is to be achieved.
610. Successful animal pictures are most readily obtained when using some form of hand camera. This allows the flock or herd to be followed from place to place and at any moment when a group is seen to be satisfactory, an exposure may be made, by simply pressing the spring release or bulb, and so securing a picture full of life and action. Of course, the reflex type of camera cannot be surpassed for this class of work, and as it shows a full size picture, just as it will be finally reproduced, right up to the very instant of releasing the shutter - exposing either plate or film, as the case may be - you get in the negative exactly what you intended to have reproduced.
611. Another reason why a camera without a cumbersome tripod is so much better in this class of photographic work, arises from the fact that one is able to walk among sheep or cattle without attracting undue attention. The strange looking tripod, which has to be erected before the photograph can be taken, increases the curiosity of the subjects and also tends to frighten them. Especially is this ill-effect likely to present itself when delay or uncertainty in finding the correct point of view is experienced. When a change of position is necessitated by the sheep, or other animals moving from one place to another, the camera and its tripod have also to be moved, hence it becomes a disturbing element and animals are likely to become suspicious and suddenly race off to some other part of the field.
Exposure. In the photographing of animals it is very important, no matter what is your subject, that full exposure be given. It is far better to have too much than too little, because if there is a tendency toward under-exposure there will be little or no detail in the shadows. Of course, when photographing moving objects it will be necessary to give a very short exposure, but always give just as much exposure as possible and you avoid any chance of movement. l-5th to l-25th of a second is approximately correct for average light when using stop F. 11.
Development. Having given full exposure to the plate, secure all possible detail and commence development with the ordinary developer diluted one-half with water. With this the negative is slow in gaining density, while detail still continues to come up in the shadow parts and a softer and more delicate negative is the result. If the plate develops quite flat, place it in a normal strength developer and continue until fully developed. It is quite a common error to develop negatives of animals with too strong a developer, which gives chalky results. If such a negative is to be enlarged, the enlargement would be very unsatisfactory under such conditions.
614. If you know the negative to be under-exposed treat it as an under-exposure and follow the directions given in Vol. II for manipulating under-exposed negatives. Tank development is one of the best methods to employ when developing negatives of animals, as it secures the best possible results from the exposure.