This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Printing And Toning Gelatin Printing-Out Papers. The following instruction covers the simplest method of finishing prints made on gelatin printing-out paper, the prints being toned and fixed in a combined bath. By a combined bath we mean a bath in which the toning and fixing have been combined into one operation.
For toning and fixing prints in separate bath see Vol. IV.
Printing On Gelatin Printing-Out Paper. The length of time required to completely print the image varies according to the strength of the light and the density of negative, and ranges from five to thirty minutes. The image on the paper will be of a dark red color, and printing will be completed when the high-lights or white portions are slightly tinted - no attention should be paid to the shadows as they will be cared for in the toning. When at this stage the print should then be removed from the frame and placed in a box, excluding the daylight. Should the print, after removal from the frame, be exposed to the daylight, the high-lights or lightest portions will gradually change to the color of the densest shadows. You must, therefore, guard against exposing the print to strong light after printing, before or while toning.
377. Different kinds of negatives require different depths of printing. For example, a dense negative, or in other words, a slow printing one, will print slower, but will print deeper, than a soft or quick printing negative. From the fact that a dense or hard negative prints slowly, it gives a more solid print than a thin negative. Because of the great density of the plate the high-lights are restrained from printing until the shadows have been exposed for a considerable length of time to the strong light, and have penetrated deeper into the emulsion of the paper.
378. By the time the high-lights are properly printed the shadows will be printed very deep, but will not lose any of the detail in the toning. Therefore, a dense negative (one which is contrasty and a slow printer) should not be printed as deep as a soft or thin one. With a hard negative, print one-half shade deeper than you desire the finished picture.
379. It is different with a soft or quick printing negative. A quick printing negative prints on the surface only, unless exposed and printed in the shade, instead of in bright sunlight. In fact, it is advisable to print thin negatives in the shade to get the best results. Even then they should be printed darker than a slow printing one. In other words, with a weak negative (one that is very thin and transparent, but full of detail), we advise carrying the printing one or two shades deeper than is required for the finished picture, as the slower the reduction of silver in printing the stronger will be the finished print. The toning and fixing being combined will cause the prints to grow only a little lighter during the process, as prints are not previously washed, which washing would reduce the strength of the print before toning and necessitate deeper printing.
380. The slower you print from a thin negative the better. By that we mean that they should be printed in the shade. If necessary to print in direct sunlight, cover the printing frame with one or two thicknesses of very fine tissue paper. French tissue paper, sometimes called onion skin, should be used. In ordinary tissue paper there are many little holes in the texture, which would leave black spots on the prints. The proper tissue paper will filter the light, causing it to print more slowly, but much more evenly, and when used over a thin negative the prints will be a great deal stronger.