908. Printing Cyko Paper

Printing Cyko Paper. We will assume that the printing is to be done by artificial light, and, in order to secure an even illumination, it is necessary that the printing frame be placed at the proper distance from the light. A large negative should be printed at a greater distance from the light than a small one, so that its greater area may be properly illuminated. The visual rule is to print at a distance at least as great as the diagonal of the negative. Thus, a 4 x 5 negative should not be printed nearer than 6 1/2 inches from the light; an 8 x 10 should not be printed nearer than 13 inches. Always place the printing frame so as to secure the full benefit of the light, thus obtaining even illumination.

909. Necessary Exposure

Necessary Exposure. It is not possible to specify any given time for exposure. The time necessary to print depends on the kind of light, the density of the negative, and the distance from the source of light. An exposure of 10 to 20 seconds, with a 16 candle power incandescent light, is usually sufficient for an average 4x5 negative, of the normal grade. The safest method is to use small strips for your first experiments. Place a strip over the most important part of the negative. Make the exposure, using judgment based upon the information given herein as to the distance from the light and the time of printing. Develop, and if not satisfactory try another strip, varying the time as indicated by the first results. When the desired effect is secured any number of prints may be made from the same negative, and if the time of exposure, the distance from the light, as well as the time of developing are identical, all the prints should be equally good. By comparing the other negatives which are to be printed from with the one which has been tested, it will be possible to make a fairly accurate estimate of the time of exposure required for any negative.

910. Developing

Developing. Cyko paper may be developed with any formula used for other gaslight papers, but the following formula will give good results:

911. Formula No. 1.-

Water, Soft or Distilled.......................

32 ozs.

Metol..........................................

15 grs.

Sodium Sulphite (Desiccated)...........................

..1 Oz..

Hydroquinone.................................

60 grs.

Sodium Carbonate (Granular)..................................

.3/4 oz.

Bromide of Potassium..................................

.3 grs.

912. Dissolve the chemicals in the order named, and remember that while the above amount of bromide is usually sufficient, it may at times be found that more of it must be added to produce clear whites. These chemicals dissolve in cold water, but more readily in warm water. If warm water is used the solution should be allowed to cool before using. This particular developer is suited for Blue Label Cyko (contrast grade), for Yellow Label Cyko (normal grade), or for Brown Label Cyko (professional grade). The stock solution should be diluted with an equal quantity of water.

913. Professional photographers who use developers in large quantities will prefer the following formula, which we will call Formula No. 2:

914. Formula No. 2, Stock Developer.-

Warm Water...............................

128 ozs.

Metol........................................

180 grs.

Sulphite Soda (Desiccated)..................

.12 ozs.

Hydroquinone.........................

1 1/2 ozs.

Sodium Carbonate (Desiccated)................

. 9. oz

Bromide of Potassium.......................................

.33 grs.

915. Mix in the order named. Keep in well stoppered bottles. This developer will keep for a long time after dissolving, if placed in bottles filling them to the neck. Unless the bottles are completely filled the developer will not keep, as there will be sufficient air in the bottle between the developer and the stopper to spoil it.

916. For Blue Label Cyko (contrast grade), mix as follows:

Stock Developer............................

.1 oz.

Water..........................................

2 ozs.

917. For Yellow Label Cyko (normal grade), and for Brown Label Cyko (professional grade), use the following:

Stock Developer...................................

. 1 OZ.

Water..........................................

3 ozs.

918. To both of the above formulae it may be necessary to add a few drops of a 10% solution of bromide of potassium. It should be borne in mind that the tones of Cyko prints will vary according to the quantity of bromide used. When just enough bromide has been added to keep the highlights clear, the blacks take a bluish tinge. If more bromide is added and a test made after such addition, the tone will change gradually from blue-black to pure black, and upon addition of a still greater amount of bromide, it will turn to green, or brownish black. Hence, for olive and brown tones, increase the quantity of bromide and lengthen the exposure. If necessary, use more water in the developer. For blue-black tones and platinum effects, avoid over-exposure. Use less water in the developer and a minimum quantity of bromide.

919. The contrast or the soft effect of the prints will also be varied according to the quantity of bromide of potassium used. If an excess of bromide is used and the exposure is shorter, the contrast will increase. If, on the other hand, the quantity of bromide is decreased and the developer diluted with water, while at the same time the exposure is increased, the prints will be softer. This applies to any grade of Cyko, whether Blue Label, Yellow Label or Brown Label.