This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Obtaining Less Foreground Or Sky. This difficulty can be readily overcome by the use of the rising front to which the lens is attached. By raising it you will obtain more sky, and by lowering, more foreground. If the camera does not possess a rising front, lower the tripod by either spreading or shortening the legs for more foreground, and raising for more sky.
Sky In Negative Too Thin, Producing A Print With Dark Or Gray Sky. This is always the result of over-exposure and then not treating the plate for an over-exposure during development. (See lesson on Developing Over-exposures, Vol. II.)
Building Having The Appearance Of Being Roofless. This effect is produced by placing the camera too near the building to be photographed, and then pointing the camera upward. (See Paragraphs 48-49, Part II, Chapter II (Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper).
Judging Proper Exposure. Only close observation and practice can teach you this. A good plan is to keep a memorandum of all exposures, time of day, condition of light, etc., etc. When during development you find a plate under or over-exposed, make an additional note under the original memorandum of this exposure and be governed by this experience next time you are making an exposure under the same or similar conditions. This is a good practice and you will, after some experience with different conditions, so train yourself that there will be little or no guessing about exposing.
Fogging Of The Plate During Development. With ordinary exposure there is little difficulty with this. The fog generally produced is a chemical fog caused by over-exposure. (See lesson "Dry Plate Developing," Vol. II.) During development it is advisable to keep the tray containing the plate away from the direct ruby light. During the development of an over-timed plate it is a good plan to cover the tray, being careful, however, to rock the tray occasionally.
Long Shadows. To obtain long shadows on the building it is necessary to make the exposure when the sun is high. All projections on the building will then cast long perpendicular shadows on the building and have a tendency to make a low building appear higher.
Short Shadows. To obtain short shadows on a building the exposure must be made when the sun is low. All projections will then cast horizontal shadows on the building and these shadows will have a tendency to make a tall building appear lower.
Effect Of Horizon. If the horizon is low the building will appear high. If it is high the effect will be just the reverse.
Arranging Figures In A View. This difficulty you can readily overcome after a little experience. Always introduce the subjects in such a manner that they will appear occupied and not as though they were having a picture taken.