This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Spotted Effect When Trees Appear In Landscape. This difficulty will be most apparent when photographing woodland scenes with the sun too high in the sky, causing the rays of light to fall perpendicularly upon the trees. The rays of light, coming through the branches, cause strong highlights and deep shadows. Under these conditions it will be necessary for you to choose another time of day - either early morning or late afternoon, when the rays of light are obstructed from entering the woods. It will then, of course, be necessary to give an exposure of considerably greater length than was required at noon-day.
379. When the landscape view contains a few trees, or even one tree, the same spotted effect is often obtained, especially if the tree - or trees - is in the foreground of the picture. The same method of procedure applies here as in the case of photographing in thick woods. The more horizontal the rays from the sun, the less will be the spotted effect.
3S0. Rain or heavy dew on the leaves of trees will sometimes catch and reflect rays of light, and thus result in giving a spotted picture. To avoid this, do not make the exposure under such conditions.
Road Scenes Uninteresting. Photographs of country roads will appear uninteresting if you have not given careful study to the subject you intend to photograph. You must select the proper viewpoint, as well as be careful in the choice of material that is to be included in the picture. As was said in Paragraph 274 of Chapter VIII (Sunlight On Landscapes Rendering Light And Shade), "Simplicity is an extremely important factor, and one of the chief virtues of road pictures; one tree, a bit of road, fences and a nice sky are often quite enough to make a picture." A road by itself seldom makes a good picture, for the foreground is very difficult to manage; therefore, it is necessary to have, in addition to the road itself, a tree or two in the right position. Greater interest can be installed in the scene if a team of horses and a wagon are introduced in, or near, the foreground. Care must be taken, however, that the moving object in the picture is not too near the camera, thereby attracting too much attention and perhaps detracting from your original intention of having a photographic reproduction of a road.
Poor Results With Color Corrected Materials. The greatest difficulty here is in improper exposure - the majority of cases are under-exposures. We called your attention to this feature in Paragraph 276, and stated, "you will find that a generous exposure on a ordinary plate, carefully developed, will give a far better rendering of values than an insufficient exposure on an ortho plate, through a screen." Therefore, whatever you do, do not under-expose when employing color corrected materials.
Over-Correction. Another difficulty experienced when using the orthoehromatic plate and a ray filter is the obtaining of overcorrection. There are a great many cases in which it is absolutely unnecessary to use color corrected plates and ray filters. It will do no harm to use the orthoehromatic plate, but judgment must be exercised in using the ray filter in conjunction with the orthoehromatic plate. The main object of the ray filter is to filter out the blue rays of light and not allow them to act upon the sensitive plate. So, when you have a scene practically devoid of blue tones it will not be necessary to use the ray filter. This you will observe more strongly when photographing through a mist, haze or smoke. These conditions act as ray filters themselves, retarding, as they do, the blue and violet rays of light.
384. Under no circumstances should the beginner attempt to use color corrected materials until he has become thoroughly familiar with the ordinary plate and is able to produce a negative of good quality on it.