86. Horizontal Swing

Horizontal Swing. Most view cameras, and many of the better class hand cameras, are provided, in addition to the perpendicular swing, with a horizontal one, the object of this being to bring into focus those objects which are nearer to the camera at one side than those on the other, as, for instance, a street scene showing the line of buildings on one side of the street which is being photographed at an angle. The buildings nearer to the camera may be brought into sharp focus, in which case those in. the distance will be indistinct, and by the horizontal swing these latter can be brought into approximate focus with those nearer to the camera.

87. Double Swing is the combination of the horizontal and vertical swings, by which any of the corrections of the image previously mentioned can be made.

88. Rack And Pinion

Rack And Pinion. Most of the higher class folding cameras are supplied with rack and pinion movement, especially those which have a double extension or those with an extremely long bellows. On the side of the bed of the camera is a milled head. By pulling this out and turning it the bellows will be extended. This rack and pinion is, of course, used for accurate focusing.

89. Tripod

Tripod. The tripod is an accessory employed as a stand or support on which to place the camera while focusing, or making time exposures. The objection to its use, in instantaneous work, is the time it takes to place the camera upon this stand.

The tripod, as its name implies, consists of three legs, each of which can be lengthened or shortened as desired; thus, it is possible to get it into a very compact form. These legs are attached to a head, upon which the camera is fastened by means of a thumb screw. As previously stated, in instantaneous work you can make the exposure by holding the camera in your hand; but for making time exposures you should use the tripod. One of sufficient rigidity should be employed so that when making the exposure the camera will remain absolutely steady, for the least movement during exposure will cause a blurred image.

When the camera is attached to the tripod, one leg should be under the bed of the camera, pointing toward the object to be photographed. This will leave one leg at each side of the rear of the camera, thus permitting easy focusing, and observation on the ground-glass of exactly what is to be produced by the plate. By this arrangement all of the legs of the tripod will be out of the way.

90. Another advantage in this arrangement is: Should it be desired, while focusing, to raise or lower the front of the camera, this can be easily accomplished by simply bringing the front leg closer or extending it farther from the camera. (See Illustration No. 10, of an adjustable tripod set up for use.)

91. Plate Holders

Plate Holders. The plate holder is essentially a part of the plate camera. It is a case or holder, as its name implies, in which the sensitive plate can be carried both before and after the exposure, being fully protected from the light.

92. The plate holders furnished with all modern makes of hand or view cameras have two compartments. In each side it is possible to place one sensitive plate; hence they are termed double plate holders. A slide, fitting in at one end, protects the sensitive surface of the plate from being exposed to the light. The plate holders should be loaded with the sensitive plates, and the slides placed in position, in the dark-room. You should have at least three plate holders with a camera. Load as many holders as desired. To make the exposure the holder is inserted in front of the

Illustration No. 11The right way

Illustration No. 11The right way.

See Paragraph No. 93

Inserting the Slide

Illustration No. 12The wrong way

Illustration No. 12The wrong way.

See Paragraph No. 93

Illustration No. 9 Result of tipping camera without proper adjustment of swing back.

Illustration No. 9 Result of tipping camera without proper adjustment of swing back.

See Paragraph No. 85

Illustration No. 10 Adjustable Tripod See Paragraph No. 90

Illustration No. 10 Adjustable Tripod See Paragraph No. 90.

Illustration 13. Dark Room Lamp

Illustration 13. Dark Room Lamp

See Paragraph No. 99

Illustration No. 14 Roll of Film

Illustration No. 14 Roll of Film.

Illustration No. 15A Temporary Dark Room

Illustration No. 15A Temporary Dark Room.

See Paragraph No. 98 ground-glass (an aperture for the plate holder being found at the side of the camera). In most cases there are heavy-springs which keep the ground-glass in place. When the plate holder is inserted the ground-glass is forced back, and the spring serves to hold the plate holder flush to the camera.