This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Paper To Use. The surface of the paper on which the final prints are made is a matter which requires some consideration. "Where there is no sharpness there is no advantage in printing on glossy paper, and even in cases where the photograph only possesses commercial value, the effect will be better if a smooth matt surface, such as platinotype or matt bromide, is used. For pictorial effect such surfaces as that of the CC platinotype and the rough developing and bromide papers are most suitable, and the character of the definition is distinctly pleasing.
Accomplishments Of The Pin-Hole. The pin-hole will never replace the lens, but it will do many things that the lens will do and some things the lens cannot do. Every straight line will be quite true, if you will use the same precautions as when working with a lens, and the pin-hole will give everything required. The following covers very well the pin-hole's accomplishments:
(1) Rectilinear results;
(2) Truthfulness to nature;
(3) Wide or narrow angle (same pin-hole);
(4) Telephoto or panoramic (same pin-hole);
(5) Depth of focus;
(6) Sense of atmosphere and correct impression of distance, and altogether a nice artistic softness characterizes the results. No focusing is required, as objects are always in focus, no matter how far or how short the camera may be racked out.
690. The pin-hole appeals to two classes of workers in particular. First, to the art photographer on account of the softness and diffusion of definition which the pin-hole gives; and second, to those not over-burdened with dollars and cents, who cannot purchase expensive apparatus.
Illustration No. 50.
The Pin-Hole Lens. This is a device so constructed that it will fit any lens flange and, when properly adjusted, converts the camera to which it is applied into a pin-hole camera. The pin-hole lens can be purchased from any photographic dealer, but it does not have the efficiency of the regular pin-hole, for, as previously stated, the glass of the lens retards the rays of light, thus increasing the exposure to a certain extent. For wide-angle work it is impossible to work at an angle over 95 degrees. The results are better and it is by all means cheaper to make your own pinhole and use it without any lens whatsoever. (See Illustration No. 50.)
Final Cautions. Remember, for the best results it is necessary that the material used in making the pin-hole should be very thin and absolutely opaque. The hole must be perfectly smooth and round. Give enough exposure. If six minutes are required, no harm will be done if you give seven, as you will be giving only 1-6 more time. The size of the pin-hole depends greatly upon the distance the pin-hole is from the plate; the shorter this distance the smaller may be the hole. The greater the distance with the same size hole, the more exposure will be required. When making prints from pin-hole negatives, do not use a glossy or too smooth a paper; the greater the diffusion the rougher should be the paper. Make proof prints from all negatives and file in your proof file for future reference.