65. Printing

Printing. When you are ready to print, cut the paper into suitable sizes, and with a pencil carefully mark the back of each sheet, so as to indicate the side which is not sensitized. This will enable you to correctly judge the side of the paper which is sensitized. The sensitized side, of course, must come in contact with the negative. It is necessary to considerably over-print this paper as compared with other printing-out processes, for the image loses considerable strength when in the hypo (fixing) bath.

Prints on this paper will appear a beautiful purplish brown color, varying according to the nature of the sizing used.

66. Washing

Washing. Wash the prints in the usual manner, but see that they are thoroughly washed so that the last tray of wash water will be free of all milky appearance. The more thoroughly the print is washed the richer and clearer and more brilliant will be the tone obtained.

67. Toning

Toning. The plain salted paper may be toned in any of the printing-out paper toning baths. Very pretty sepia effects are produced by simply washing and fixing in hypo. The following formula is especially recommended:

68. Toning Bath

Toning Bath.

Borax .......................................

100

grs.

Hot Water ..................................

5

ozs.

Thoroughly dissolve, then add

Gold Chloride ...............................

1

gr.

Water .......................................

5

ozs.

69. As this bath will not keep well it should be used immediately after preparing. The length of time to tone depends on the color or tone you wish to produce. From six to ten minutes is an average length of time, but much depends on the methods employed in sizing and sensitizing.

70. Fixing

Fixing. When the print is properly fixed all sensitive silver salts which have not been acted upon by the light will have been removed. During the process of fixing, as well as toning, the prints must be protected from actinic light in order to avoid fogging, or deadening of the tones. It is a good plan to dissolve the hypo in warm water, for when this chemical is added to cold water, the temperature becomes lower as the hypo dissolves, and this would make the fixing bath too cold, which would retard the fixing. The proper temperature of the fixing bath is about 60 degrees Fahr.

71. Formula For Fixing Bath

Formula For Fixing Bath.

Hypo........................................

3

ozs.

Warm Water................................

20

ozs.

72. Test this bath with blue litmus paper. If the hypo is acid it will turn the litmus paper red. It is advisable to add a few grains of carbonate of soda, or a few drops of liquid ammonia - a sufficient quantity of either to cause red litmus paper to change slightly blue. The prints should be fixed for about ten minutes, and it is very essential that both the fixing and final washing be extremely thorough, otherwise the prints may become yellow in a short time. Alum, or any other substance which tends to produce sulphurization, should by no means be used to remove the last traces of hypo. If there are any signs of bleaching while the prints are in the hypo bath, reduce the strength of the bath by adding a little water. After fixing, the prints may be washed and mounted in the usual manner.

73. Glycerin Bath

Glycerin Bath. It will be found advantageous, after having thoroughly washed the prints and before drying them, to immerse them in a 10% solution of glycerin and water, as this will render them more pliable and easy to mount.

Difficulties. - See Chapter III (How To Proceed), Paragraphs 86-92.