106. Prints Softening In First Wash Water

Prints Softening In First Wash Water. If the prints soften in the first wash water, then a 5% solution of alum is best to use for the second water, and the prints must be carefully washed after hardening before entering the toning bath. The alum does not harden the emulsion as much as the formalin and therefore will not affect the action of the toning chemicals, as formalin is apt to do. In some instances the formalin prevents toning entirely, but this is not the case with alum, yet with the latter there is danger of sulphurization. Where absolutely permanent prints are desired the best way would be to get along without any hardener whatever, for where ice can be employed this will generally overcome any softening of the film. Where one does not care so much about the absolute permanency of the prints, as is sometimes the case with commercial work, should they soften during manipulation, one-half ounce of any hardening solution added to each gallon of hypo bath will toughen the film. This hardening solution can be obtained from any paper manufacturer, or you can prepare it yourself as follows:

107. FORMULA FOR HARDENING SOLUTION.

Chloride of Aluminum..............................

3 Ozs.....

Bi-Sulphite of Soda........................................

2 1/2 ozs.

Cold Water...................................

12 ozs.

Place both chemicals in the water and shake well until all is dissolved.

108. Alum Fixing Bath

Alum Fixing Bath. The alum fixing bath is not recommended, but for those who prefer using it we give the formula for preparing it below:

Water........................................

70 Ozs.

Hypo.........................................

6 ozs.

Alum Crystals...........................

2 1/2 ozs.

Sulphite of Soda Crystals.........................

3/8 oz.

When all is dissolved, add % oz. borax dissolved in 10 ozs. of hot water. Stir this bath while adding the borax solution.

109. This fixing bath must be made up about ten hours before using, as it keeps indefinitely before use and it can be made up in large quantities. When using the alum baths prints must be thoroughly washed to eliminate all the alum from the print, and, therefore, washing by hand is important. Sixteen changes by hand should be sufficient for this.

110. Practice Work - For your practice work for purple tones, several prints should be made from different quality negatives. If you have followed instructions given in the first lesson, you should be able to judge pretty accurately the required depth of printing and your efforts should now be devoted to the obtaining of a purple tone. This may require some altering of the bath. Your first print should be toned in a normal bath made exactly according to the formula; then for the benefit of the experience you will derive, you should alter the bath, first using a strong bath by adding more gold and next trying the bath with more alkali. In other words become familiar with the effects of little alkali, strong alkali, strong gold and normal bath. This will be good experience and will serve as an excellent guide for your future work. Note on the backs of your practice prints all data pertaining to your manipulation and file these prints in your proof file for future reference.

111. Should you experience difficulty in obtaining proper results by using part old and part new toning bath, prepare a fresh bath for each batch of prints. Allow the bath to stand and ripen a few hours before use.