This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Dodging During Exposure. Frequently during exposure results can be improved if a portion of the negative is held back somewhat, without masking the entire negative. Portions may be restrained, or held back by the. following method:
784. Provide a hand blender, which is made as follows: From a sheet of ordinary window glass cut a strip 12 inches long and 1/2 inch wide. Paste on the end of this glass rod a round piece of opaque paper, or thin cardboard, about the size of a quarter. The glass rod containing the opaque paper or cardboard, being transparent, will permit the blending of any portion of the negative without interfering with other portions. By means of the blender, interposed between the light and the part of the negative it is desired to hold back, you can restrain to any degree desired. Where for instance, 15 to 20 seconds exposure is given for complete printing, a few seconds restraining with the blender over the parts you wish to hold back will make a surprising difference. The blender must not be held stationary, but be moved about gently with a circular motion. The degree of blending is controlled by the distance the blender is held from the negative. Usually, when the blender is used, printing is done farther from the light, allowing more latitude for the blending and dodging. If the blender is held too close to the negative it will show a sharp line. In printing from portraits where the face or arms are a trifle thin, the blender is almost indispensable. With it the flesh portions may be restrained sufficiently to give a well balanced print. In many instances, particularly in portraiture, to prevent flesh from printing too dark, the entire print is under-printed, thus giving a weak, mealy effect. By means of the blender these portions may be held back and the print carried to the proper depth, affording good results and rich half-tones.
Special Development. With the formula recommended for special developing of Velox, or gaslight papers, the contrast producing chemical (hydroquinone) can almost be dispensed with, developing being entirely accomplished with metol. As stated in previous instruction, the desired degree of softness, even to flatness or contrast, may be obtained by altering the proportions of metol and hydro-quinone. Metol affords a steady and gradual developer; hydroquinone supplies strength and contrast.
Special Developing Formula.
... 10 ozs.
Sulphite of Soda (Granular or Anhydrous)....
(If Crystals are used.................................................1 oz.)
Carbonate of Potassium.............................
Mix in the order given.
787. Prepare the hypo acid fixing bath in the ordinary way, keeping the bath at from 50 to 60 degrees Fahr.
788. For your first experiments the developer should be made up in small quantities, and may be altered for strength or softness to suit your needs. Remember, hydroquinone gives strength, metol retards; so if more softness is required use less hydroquinone or increase the metol. If more strength is desired increase the hydroquinone.
789. To derive the most benefit from the experiments work methodically and keep a memorandum of each experiment. The following data should be noted on slips, and these slips filed in a proof file for future reference:
790. Memorandum Blank, as follows:
Negative - State whether Strong or Contrasty, etc. Paper - State whether Special, or Regular, etc. Developer -
Sulphite of Soda................................
Carbonate of Potassium.................................
Bromide of Potassium...........................
Results, good; if poor, mark "bad."
792. When printing for development by this formula, if the regular exposure is given - exposure proper for a diluted developer - the print, when placed in this developer, would have to remain a few minutes before acquiring the required strength. Prolonged development would bring out the blend more evenly, but there would be danger of producing yellow or grayish whites and losing snap and vigor. Therefore, it is necessary when developing by this formula, to print longer than ordinarily. About a third more exposure should be given.
793. In this formula there is used considerable less of the strength producing chemical (hydroquinone). By the extra long exposure given, provision has been made for all the detail required. Therefore it is simply necessary in the development to retain this detail by proper handling of the strength producing chemical. If too much of the strength producing chemical is used the shadows will develop too quickly, showing strong and black; they having been printed deep, the detail would fail to develop in the highlights or whitest parts of the print.
794. Very often you will find that instead of changing the amount of ingredients, metol or hydroquinone, simply adding water will produce the desired results. For thin negatives which have plenty of detail in the highlights and deepest shadows, negatives probably produced by overexposure and under-development, dilute the developer by adding two-thirds more water. For hard or medium strength negatives use full strength developer and add from 10 to 15 drops of bromide. In using developer of double strength a considerable amount of bromide may be introduced without danger of producing a print too green. When printing from a medium strength negative, it is safe to add bromide until the print develops clear without developing a green tone. Frequently it will be found to take as much as one-half ounce of a 10% solution of bromide to produce good results. Always bear in mind, that green prints are generally produced by adding too much bromide. Add bromide in small quantities until the whites are clear with the green tone invisible.
795. When diluting developer for thin negatives use very little bromide, as the water acts as a restrainer and should more bromide be added it would doubly restrain the developer.
ON THE FROZEN RIVER Study No. 16 See Page 387 By John Chislett.
PORTRAIT Study No. 17 See Page 387 By E. A. Brush.
796. As you time longer than for ordinary developing when using this bath there is considerable more latitude in the printing. For this reason, do not be afraid to give an abundance of exposure. In testing the developer, first start with 10 to 15 drops of 10% solution of bromide. If the whites are not clear add a few more drops of bromide, and continue adding until the whites are clear. Bear in mind, if the prints begin to develop green, too much bromide has been added. In such an event add more fresh developer to the bath, just enough to keep the prints from developing green, and producing soft whites.
797. A good method of developing a print is to place it in the bath in the ordinary way, handling it over two or three times until the image begins to appear. When it does show place the print on the palm of the left hand, face up, and with the right rub very gently over the surface backward and forward. The rapidity with which the print will develop will be surprising. The warmth from the hand speeds the developing. If there are portions of the print that do not develop as rapidly as desired; or, should you wish to develop some portions before others; rub only these portions, dipping the fingers frequently into the developer. This will give a great degree of latitude in developing and enables the making of good prints even from poor negatives.
798. There are times when it is desirable to exclude parts of a negative from printing. For example: In portraiture, when only a portion of a figure is desired, or part of a waist in a bust picture is to be eliminated; in landscapes, where an artistic picture could be made if a tree or a stump could be eliminated; with a group picture where persons or details not a part of the group, come within the range of the lens. The effect in any of these cases would be very much improved if the objectionable part could be eliminated. This can be done by vignetting.