Abbreviations. - s., soluble; v. s., very soluble; sp. s., sparingly soluble; n. s., not soluble;

Name.

Symbol.

Molecular

WEIGHT.

One Part is Soluble in ColdWater

One Part is Soluble in Hot Water

Alcohol.

Calcium Hypochlorite (see Chloride of Lime)

CaCl202CaCl2(?).........

254

sp. s.

sp. s.

dec.

Calomel (see Mercurous Chloride)

..............................................

...............

.....................

..............

.................

Camphor

C10H16O.................

152

1000

..............

v. s.

Caustic Potash ( see Potassium Hydrate ). .

........................................................

...................

....................

.....................

.................

" Soda (see Sodium Hydrate)

........................................................

..................

..................

....................

..................

Chalk (see Calcium Carbonate)

................................................

..................

....................

....................

..............

Chinoline Blue or Cyanine..................

C29H35NaI...............

533

sp. s.

sp. s.

s.

Red.............................

C26H19NaCl.............

389.5

.................

..................

..................

Chloride of Lime (see Calcium Hypochlorite)

.................................................

................

...............

.................

....................

Chlorine.................................

CI

35.5

absorbed by 1 to 2.5 vols.

Chloroform..................... .......

CHCI3...................

119.5

sp. s.

.......sp.s.

v. s.

Chrome - Alum (see Alum Chrome)

...................................................

................

.................

.................

Copper Acetate (see Verdigris)

Cu(C3H302)2+H20.....

223.4

14

5

1 in 14

" Bromide..............

CuBr2...................

223.4

1

.75 .75

s.

" Chloride............................

CuCl2+H20.............

152.4

1

V. s.

" Sulphate (see Blue Vitriol)..........

CuS04+5H20...........

249.4

3

1

n. s.

CuS04+4NH3+ H20.....

245.4

s.

V. s.

n. s.

Corrosive Sublimate ( see Mercuric Chloride )

...............................................

..............

................

...............

...............

Dextrine.............

C6H10O5

162

easily.

n. s.

Eikonogen (Amido- B-Naphthol- B -Monosul-phonate of Sodium )....................

C10H8So4NaN...........

261

40

e. s.

s.

Eosine, Yellow Shade ( Tetra Bromo - fluo resceine Potassium )....................

C20H6Br4O5K2...........

724

9.

s.

s.

Eosine, Red Shade (Tetra Brom.-fluores. Sod.)

C20H6Br4O5Na2..........

692

s.

s.

s.

Erythrosine M. (Tetra Iodo - fluoresceine Potassium or Sodium).....................

C20H6I4O5K2 or Na2.....

912 or 880

s.

s.

s.

Erythrosine G. (Di-iodo-fluoresceine Potassium or Sodium) .................

C20H6I2O5K2 or Na2.....

658 or 626

s.

s.

s.

Gelatine,Glutine

Unobtainalbe

sp. s.

e. s.

n. s.

Glycerine..................................

C3H8O3.................

92

in all propor tions.

Glycine (Oxy - phenyleglycine)

C8H9O3N................

162

..........

.........

......

Gold, Neutral Chloride....................

AuCl3

302.5

1

5

also in ether.

" and Cadmium Chloride

AuClr,Cd.................

485.5

s.

s.

s.

" and Potassium Chloride..............

AuCl4K + 5H20..........

467

s.

s.

s.

" and Sodium Chloride

AuCl4Na+2H20.........

397

s.

s.

S.

" Sodium Hypo - sulphite...............

AuNa3S40+2H20......

525

s.

s.

S.

Gun Cotton (Tetra - nitrate Cellulose).......

C12H16O6(NO3)4

504

n. s.

n. s.

( in ether

" " (Tri-nitrate Cellulose).........

CioH1707(NOc)3.........

579

n. s.

n. s.

I alcohol

Hydroquinone............................

CfiHc02.................

110

s.

s

also in ether.

Hydroxilamine Hydrochloride

NH3OHCl...............

69.5

0.6

e. s.

4

Iodine .... ....

I........................

127

sp. s.

sp. s.

e. S.

Iridium Tetra Chloride.....................

IrCl4....................

335

...........

.........

........

Iron, Ammonium Sulphate.................

FeS04(NH4)2S04+6H20

392

v. s.

dec.

n. s.

" Chloride (Ferric)....................

Fe2Cl6

325

.75

.5

1 in 1

" Chloride (Ferrous) ..................

Fe2Cl2

127

2

1

1 in 1

" Citrate...............................

Fe2(C6H5O7) 2 ...........

490

s.

s.

n. s.

" Citrate and Ammonium...............

Fe2(C6H5O7)2+(NH4)3

544

s.

s.

sp. s.

" Iodide................................

FeI2+4H20.............

382

v. s.

v. s.

v. s.

" Nitrate...............................

Fe(NOs)2+6H20........

288

V. s.

dec.

dec.

" Oxalate (Ferric) .....................

Fe2(C204)3..............

376

s.

s.

11. s.

" " (Ferrous)....................

FeC204..................

144

in potas sium oxal.

n. s.

" Sulphate (Ferric) ....................

Fc2(S04)3+9H20........

566

s.

dec.

s.

" " (Ferrous) ...................

FeS04+7H20...........

278

1 5

1

tl. s.

Kaoline.......... ............

Al2Si207+2H20.........

258.8

not

soluble.

Lead, Accetate (see Sugar of Lead) ....................

Pb(C2HsOo)2............

325

2.5

2

1 in 12.5

" Carbonate............................

PbCO3..................

267

n. s.

sp. s.

n. s.

" Iodide...............................

Pbl2.....................

461

s.

s.

n. s.

Abbreviations. - s., soluble; v. s., very soluble; sp. s., sparingly soluble; n. s., not soluble;

Name.

Symbol.

Molecular Weight.

One Part is Soluble in Cold Water

One Part is Soluble in Hot Water

Alcohol.

Lead, Nitrate..............................

Pb(N03)2...............

331

7.7

7

s.

" Oxide...............................

PbO.....................

223

n. s.

n. s

Alkalis.

Lithium, Bromide

LiBr....................

87

.66

.0

v. s.

Chloride..........................

LiCl + H20..............

60.5

1.3

1

s.

" Iodide............................

LiI+3H2O..............

188

.61

.5

s.

Magnesium, Bromide

MgBr2..................

184.4

1

.75

s.

Magnesium Chloride

MgCl2...................

95.4

2

1.5

s.

" Iodide .........................

Mgl2....................

278.4

1

.75

V. s.

" Sulphate (see Epsom Salt)......

MgS04,7H20............

246.4

1.3

1

sp. s.

Manganous Chloride.......................

MnCl2+4H20...........

198

s.

s.

n. s.

Mercury, Chloride (Mercuric) (see Corr. Subl.) " " (Mercurous) (see Calo-

HgCl2...................

271

19

3

5

" " (Mercurous)(see Calomel)

Hg2Cl2..................

471

n. s.

n. s.

11. s.

" Cyandie..........................

HgCy2 or (CN)2.........

252

8

2

1 in 20

" Iodide (Mercuric)................

Hgl2....................

454

sp. s.

sp. s.

sp. s.

" " (Mercurous)...............

Hg2I2...................

654

n. s.

n. s.

n. s.

Metol (Mono-methyl Para - amidometakresol)

CgHnNO................

137

s.

s.

s.

Para - amidophenol..........................

C6H7NO................

109

sp. s.

s.

..............

Para - amidophenol Sodium .................

C6H6NaNO..............

131

easily Soluble ..........

Para - amidophenol Hydrochlorate...........

C6H7NOHCl............

145.5

s.

s.

s.

Para - rosaniline (Triamido-phenyl-Carbinol).

Phenol (see Carbolic Acid) ...........

C19H19N3O..............

305

..........

...........

.........

Platino-potassium Chloride or Chloro-pla-tinite ...............

K2PtCl4.................

417.4

6

s.

Platino - sodium Chloride or Chloro-platinite of Sodium..............................

Na2PtCl4................

385.4

Soluble

........

Platinum Chloride........................

PtCl4+5H20............

429.4

.........

.....

..........

Potassa (see Potassium Hydrate)

..........

.........

.........

............

...........

Potassium, Aluminium Sulphate ( see Alum ).

..............

..........

.........

...........

.........

" Bicarbonate

KHCO3

100

3

2

n. s.

" Bichromate......................

K2Cr207.................

294.4

10

7

n. s.

" Bromide.........................

KBr.....................

119

2

1

1 in 90

" Carbonate.......................

K2CO3..................

138

.75

.5

n. s.

" Chlorate.........................

KICO3..................

122.5

16

2

n. s.

Chloride........................

KC1.....................

74.5

3

2

sp. s.

" Chromic Sulph. (see Chrome-Alum)

" Citrate..........................

K3C6H7O8...............

324

6.6

.3

n. s.

" Cyanide.........................

KCy or (CN)............

65

1

.5

sp. s.

" Ferric Sulphate..................

K2S04+Fe2(S04);! + 24H20................

957

s.

s.

n. s.

Ferri-cyanide (see Red Prussiate)

K3FeCyc................

329.3

2.5

1.2

n. s.

Ferro-cyanide (see Yellow Pruss.)

K4FeCyo+3H20.........

422

3

1

n. s.

" Fluoride.........................

KF1.....................

53

V. s.

v. s.

V. s.

11 Hydrate.........................

KOH...................

56

.5

.25

sp. s.

Iodide...........................

KI......................

166

-75

.5

1 in 16

KNO3...................

101

4

1

n. s.

" Oxalate..........................

K2C2O4+2H2O..........

202

3

2

sp. s.

" Permanganate..................

KMnO4.................

158

16

10

n. s.

" Sulpho - cyanate

KCyS...................

97

2

1

sp. s.

Pyrogallol (see Pyrogallic Acid)

..........

..........

.......

............

Rhodan (German appellation for Cyanates).

......

..............

.................

...........

Rodinal (ready-prepared Para-amido Devel.)

........

...............

................

.................

Silver, Acetate.............................

AgC2H.,02..............

167

sp. s.

sp. s.

n. s.

" Bromide.............................

AgBr....................

188

n. s.

n. s.

in HCland HBr.

" Carbonate...........................

Ag2CO3

276

n. s.

n. s.

n. s.

Appendix.

Real platinum - chloride is but little soluble in water ; the article of commerce of that name answers to the formula of Cl42HCl+GH,0, and is of the atomic weight 520.4 (K. Schwier). It is easily soluble in water, probably in the proportion of 1.6.

Abbreviations. - s., soluble; v. s., very soluble; sp. s., sparingly soluble; n. s., not soluble;

Name.

Symbol.

Molecular Weight.

One Part is Soluble in ColdWater

One Part is

Soluble in Hot Water

Alcohol.

Silver, Chloride............................

AgCl....................

143.5

n. s.

n. s.

Ammonia.

cyan, potass.

hypo-sulphite of soda.

" Citrate.............................

Ag3C6H5O7..............

513

sp. s.

sp. s.

...........

" Fluoride.............................

AgFl....................

127

V. s.

v. s.

V. S.

" Iodide...............................

Agl.....................

235

n. s.

n. s.

same as Chloride.

" Nitrate..............................

AgNOs..................

170

1

.5

sp. s.

AgN02..................

154

300

dec.

n. s.

" Oxalate..............................

Ag2C204................

302

sp. s.

s.

n. s.

" Oxide...............................

Ag20...................

232

n. s.

n. s.

n. s.

" SulphiteSoda,Caustic (see Sodium Hydrate)

Ag2S....................

248

n. s.

n. s.

n. s.

Sodium Acetate............................

NaC2H3O2+3H2O

136

3

.66

n. s.

" Biborate (Borax)....................

Na2B4O7 + 10H2O........

382

12.5

2

n. s.

" Bromide............................

NaBr....................

103

1.25

1

1.16

" Bicarbonate..........................

NaHC03................

84

12

dec.

n. s.

" Carbonate...........................

Na2CO3 + 10H2O.........

286

2

1

n. s.

Chloride.............................

NaCl....................

58.5

2.75

2.75

n. s.

" Citrate..............................

Na3C6H507..............

258

1

.5

sp. s.

" Hydrate.............................

NaHO..................

40

1.5

.5

sp. s.

" Hypo - sulphite

Na2S203 + 5H20.........

248

1.5

1

Sp s

" Iodide...............................

Nal.....................

150

.5

.3

sp. s

14 Nitrate..............................

NaNOs..................

85

1.36

1

1 in 37

Sodium Sulph-antimoniate or Schlippe's Salt

Na3SbS4.................

317

s.

s.

n. s.

" Sulphate

Na2SO4 + 10H2O.........

322

2

4

s.

" Sulphide.............................

Na2S+9H20.............

240

s.

s.

sp. s.

" Sulphite.............................

Na2S03 + 7H20..........

252

4

2

sp. s.

" Tungstate...........................

Na2W04+3H20.........

330

s.

s.

n. s.

Thio-sulphate (see Hypo-sulphite).. . Strontium, Bromide........................

SrBr2+6H20............

355.5

1

.75

sp. s.

" Chloride.....................

SrCl2 + 6H20............

266.5

1.8

1

sp. s.

Strontium, Nitrate.........................

Sugar of Lead (see Lead Acetate)

Sr(N03)2................

211.5

5

2

sp. s.

Tannin (see Digallic Acid)

Thymol................. .....

C6H3CH3(C3H7)COO....

177

sp.

and in ether.

Tin, Choride (Stannic)....................

260

dec.

in much

water.

" Chloride (Stannous)...................

SNCl2+2H20............

225

135:100

655:100

v. s.

Uranium, Bromide.........................

UBr2+4H20.............

472

1

.5

sp. s.

" Nitrate ...............................

U02(N03)2+6H20......

504

.5

.25

v. s.

" Sulphate........................

UO2SO4+3H2O.........

422

.5

.25

v. s.

Verdigris (see Copper Acetate)

Vitriol, Blue (see Copper Sulphate)

" Green (see Iron Sulphate)

" White (see Zinc Sulphate)

Water.....................................

H20.....................

18

Washing Soda (see Sodium Carbonate)

Wood Alcohol (see Alcohol Methyl) Zinc Bromide

ZnBr2...................

225

del.

and e.s.

s.

" Chloride..............................

ZnCl2....................

136

.33

s.

" Iodide................................

ZnI2.....................

319

.33

dec.

v s.

" Nitrate ...................................

Zn(N03)2+6H20........

297

del.

del.

del.

" Sulphate (see White Vitriol)____.....

ZnS04 + 7H20...........

287

2

1

n. s.

Zircon Earth.............................

ZrO2....................

122

n. s.

n. s.

n. s.

Tables Of The Symbols, Classes Or Groups; Atomic And Equivalent Weights Of The Elements

Name.

Symbol.

Group.

Atomic Weight.

Equivalent Weight .

Aluminum..........

Al

III (IV)

27.4

13.7

Antimony (Stibium)..........

Sb

III (V)

120.0

120.0

Arsen...........

As

III (V)

75.0

75.0

Barium.......................

Ba

II

137.0

68.5

Berryllium (Glucinum)

Be

II or III

9.4

4.7

Bismuth......................

Bi

III (V)

208.0

208.0

Boron........................

B

III (V)

11.0

11.0

Bromine......................

Br

I (III, V, VII)

80.0

80.0

Carbon.......................

C

IV

12.0

6.0

Cadmium...........

Cd

II

112.0

56.0

Caesium.............

Cs

I

133.0

133.0

Calcium................

Ca

II

40.0

20.0

Cerium.........

Ce

III (IV)

140.0

46.0

Chlorine.........

CI

I (III,V,VII)

35.5

35.5

Chromium.........

Cr

IV (VI)

52.2

26.1

Cobalt........................

Co

II (IV)

58.8

29.4

Copper

Cu

II

63.4

31.7

Didymium......

Di

III

145.0

Erbium.........

E

III

166.0

Fluorine.............

F

I

19.0

19.0

Gallium......................

Ga

IV

69.0

Germanium

Ge

IV

72.2

Glucinum

G

II

9.4

9.4

Gold.........................

Au

I (III)

196.0

196.0

Hydrogen....................

H

I

1.00

1.00

Indium.......................

In

III (IV?)

113.4

37.8

Iodine........

I

I, III, V, VII

127.0

127.0

Iridium..........

Ir

II (IV, VI)

193 0

99.0

Iron.................

Fe

II (IV, VI)

56.0

28.0

Lanthanium..................

La

III

138.5

46.3

Lead ( Plumbum ).............

Pb

II (IV)

207.0

103.5

Lithium......................

Li

I

7.0

7.0

Magnesium..........

Mg

II

24.4

12.2

Manganese..............

Mn

II(IV,VI,VII)

55.0

27.5

Mercury......................

Hg

II

200.0

100.0

Molybdenum..............

Mo

VI

96.0

46.0

Table of the Symbols, Etc. - Continued.

Name.

Symbol.

Group.

Atomic Weight.

Equivalent Weight.

Niobium ( Columbium ).......

Nb

V

94.0

18.8

Nickel..........

Ni

II (IV)

58.8

29.4

Nitrogen............

N

III (V)

14.0

14.0

Osmium.........

Os

II(IV,VI,VII)

199.0

99.5

Oxygen............

O

II (IV?)

16.0

8.0

Palladium..............

Pd

(II, IV, VI)

106.0

53.25

Phosphorus.............

P

III (V)

31.0

31.0

Platinum..........

Pt

II (IV, VI)

196.0

98.7

Potassium(Kalium)...............

K

I

39.0

39.0

Rhodium..............

Rh

II (VI)

103.5

52.2

Rubidium......

Rb

I (V)

85.4

85.4

Ruthenium...

Ru

II(IV,VI,VIII)

101.4

52.2

Scandium....

Sc

II(IV,VI,VII)

43.9

52.2

Selenium...........

Se

II (IV, VI)

79.0

39.7

Silicon(Silicium)...........

Si

IV

28.0

14.0

Silver (Argentum)...........

Ag

I

108.0

108.0

Sodium (Natrium )...........

Na

I

23.0

23.0

Strontium.............

Sr

II

87.5

43.7

Sulphur................

S

II (IV, VI)

32.0

16.0

Tantalum...............

Ta

V

182.0

36.4

Tellurium..........

Te

II (IV, VI)

127.0

64.0

Thallium.........

Tl

I (III)

204.0

204.0

Thorium.........

Th

IV

232.5

57.87

Tin (Stannum)...........

Sn

II, IV

118.0

59.0

Tugsten (Wolfram)...........

W

IV, VI

184.0

92.0

Uranium...........

u

VI (IV)

240.0

60.0

Vanadium.............

V

III (V)

51.2

51.2

ytterbium..............

Yt

IV

172.6

17.1

Yttrium........

Y

II

89.5

30.85

Zinc............

Zn

II

65.0

32.5

Zinconium..................

Zr

IV

90.0

44.8

Elsden's Table Of Poisons And Antidotes

Poisons.

Remarks.

Characteristic Symptoms.

Antidote.

Caustic Vegetable Alkalies. Acids.

Oxalic Acid.

including Potassium Oxalate.

1 dram is the smallest fatal dose known.

Hot, burning sensation in throat and stomach; vomiting, cramps, and numbness.

Chalk, whiting or magnesia, suspended in water. Plaster or mortar can be used in emergency.

Ammonia.

Potash.

Soda.

Vapor of ammonia may cause inflammation of the lungs.

Swelling of tongue, mouth, and fauces; often followed by stricture of the oesophagus.

Vinegar and water.

Metallic Salts.

Mercuric Chloride.

3 grains is the smallest known fatal dose.

Acrid, metallic taste, constriction and burning in throat and stomach, followed by nausea and vomiting.

White and yolk of raw eggs with milk. In emergency, flour paste may be used.

Acetate of Lead.

The sub-acetate is still more poisonous.

Constriction in the throat and at pit of stomach; crampy pains and stiffness of abdomen; blue line round the gums.

Sulphates of soda or magnesia. Emetic of sulphate of zinc.

Cyanide of Potassium.

a. Taken internally, 3grs. fatal.

b. Applied to wounds and abrasures of the skin.

Insensibility, slow, gasping respiration, dilated pupils, and spasmodic closure of the jaws.

Smarting sensation.

No certain remedy; cold affusion over head and neck efficacious.

Sulphate of iron should be applied immediately.

Bichromate of Potas'um Nitrate of Silver.

a. Taken internally.

b. Applied to slight abrasions of the skin.

Irritant pain in stomach, and vomit'g. Produces troubleso'e sores and ulcers.

Powerful irritant.

Emetics and magnesia, or chalk.

Common salt to be given immediately, followed by emetics.

Concentrate Mineral Acids.

Nitric Acid.

2 drams have been fatal. Inhalation of the fumes has also been fatal.

Corrosion of windpipe and violent inflammation.

Bicarbonate of soda, or carbonate of magnesia or chalk, plaster of the apartment beaten up in water.

Hydrochloric Acid. Sulphuric Acid.

l/2 ounce has caused death. 1 dram has been fatal.

Acetic Acid, concentrated, has as powerful an effect as the mineral acids.

Iodine.

Variable in its action; 3 grains have been fatal.

Acrid taste, tightness about the throat, vomiting.

Vomiting should be encouraged, and gruel, arrowroot and starch given freely.

Ether. Pyrogallol.

When inhaled. 2 grains sufficient to kill a dog.

Effects similar to chloroform. Resemble phosphorus poisoning.

Cold affusion and artificial respira'n. No certain remedy. Speedy emetic desirable.

Treatment Of Residues

Nature of Waste.

Treatment.

Result of Operation.

Extraction of Precious Metal.

Old hypo and fixing baths.

Add a small quantity of a strong solution of potassium sulphide, and silver will be precipitated in the form of a dense brown flucculent cloud; which stir, and allow to settle.

Collect the resulting precipitate of sulphide of silver, and allow to dry.

Mix with equal weight of sodium carbonate, 2 parts, potassium nitrate, 1 part, and fuse in a crucible

Solid residues (cuttings of silver paper, old filters, etc.).

Burn.

Collect the ashes.

Mix with equal weight of sodium carbonate, 2 parts, potassium nitrate, 1 part, and fuse in a crucible.

Old combined toning and fixing sulpho-cyanide baths.

Add a small quantity of hydrochloric acid and ferrous sulphate, which give a precipitate of metallic gold mixed with hydrous perchloride of iron.

Collect, and dry.

Fuse in a crucible to collect the gold and silver.

Old platinotype baths (oxalate of potassium).

Add to each liter (1,000 cc.) of old oxalate bath, 330 cc. of a concentrated solution of sulphate of iron, and heat to boiling point.

The resulting black precipitate is pure platinum.

Collect, wash well, and dry on a filter.

Acid-fixing baths (platinotype process).

Add ferrous developing solution.

Metallic platinum is formed (mixed with small quantity of iron).

Eliminate the iron by treating with sulphuric acid, then wash.

Silver from sensitive films.

Place sensitized plates, etc., in 100 cc. of hydrochloric acid; pour the whole into a beaker, and add 100 cc. of sulphuric acid, and heat.

Silver forms at the bottom of the beaker; allow to settle, and decant.

The residue is mixed with 5 parts of charcoal and 70 parts of sawdust, and heated to bright red in a crucible for an hour. A button of silver will be found at the bottom after the operation.

Characteristics Of The Principal Photographic Developers

Developer.

Color of

IMAGE.

Solubility.

Quantity Used

IN 1,000 C.C. OF

Water.

Used With.

Keeping Qualities.

Amidol.

Gray - black.

Soluble in water. Slightly soluble in alcohol.

5 grms.

Neutral sulphite soda and other alkalies.

looses energy when it turns red.

Pyrocatechin (Kachin).

Bluish-gray.

Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether.

5 to 15 grms.

Alkaline carbonates.

Slowly turns brown.

Eikonogen.

Gray-blue.

Soluble in warm water.

Very soluble in cold water.

Almost insoluble in alcohol or ether.

10 to 80 grms.

Neutral sulphite with alkaline carbonates.

Turns brown when exposed to the air without losing its energy.

Glycin.

Very soluble in water and alcohol. Insoluble in ether.

Caustic alkalies and carbonates.

Hydroquinone.

Brown - black.

Very soluble in warm water, alcohol and ether; less soluble in cold.

7 to 10 grms.

Caustic alkalies and carbonates.

Turns brown when exposed to the air without losing its energy.

Metol.

Gray-black.

Very soluble in water. Soluble in alcohol and ether.

5 grms.

Alkaline carbonates.

Keeps well.

Ortol.

Very soluble in water. Soluble in alcohol and ether.

Alkaline carbonates.

Paramidophenol.

Bluish.

Very soluble in water.

Slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.

10 to 25 grms.

Carbonates and caustic alkalies.

Keeps well.

Pyrogallic Acid.

Brown-yellow.

Very soluble in water, alcohol and ether.

5 to 10 grms.

Carbonates and ammonia.

Turns brown in the air.

Ferrous sulphate.

Yellowish.

Very soluble in water. Insoluble in alcohol.

100 to 300 grms.

Carbonates and ammonia.

Does not keep well.

United States Weights And Measures. According To Existing Standards

LINEAL.

Inches.

Feet.

Yards.

Rods.

Fur's

Mile.

12 inches = 1 foot.

12 =

1

3 feet = 1 yard.

36 =

3

= 1

5.5 yards = 1 rod.

198 =

16.5

= 5.5

= 1

40 rods = 1 furlong.

7,920 =

660

= 220

= 40

= 1

8 furlongs = 1 mile.

63,360 =

5,280

= 1,760

= 320

= 8

= 1

SURFACE - LAND.

144 sq. ins. = 1 sq. ft.

Feet.

Yards.

Rods.

Roods.

Acres.

9 sq. ft. = 1 sq. yard.

9

= 1

30.25 sq. yds. = 1 sq. rod.

272.25

= 30.25 =

1

40 sq. rods = 1 sq. rood.

10,890

= 1,210 =

40

= 1

4 sq. roods = 1 acre.

43,560

= 4,840 =

160

= 4

= 1

640 acres = 1 sq. mile.

27,878,400

=3,097,600 =

102,400

= 2,560

= 640

VOLUME - LIQUID.

4 gills = 1 pint.

Gills.

Pints.

Gallon.

Cub. In.

2 pints = 1 quart.

32

= 8

= 1 =

231

4 quarts = 1 gallon.

FLUID.

Gallon.

Pints.

Ounces.

Drachms.

Minims.

Cubic Centimetres.

1 =

8 =

128 =

1,024 =

61,440

= 3,785,485

1 =

16 =

128 =

7,680

= 473,179

1 =

8 =

480

= 29,574

1 =

60

= 3,697

16 ounces, or a pint, is sometimes called a fluid pound.

TROY WEIGHT.

Pound.

Ounces.

Pennyweights.

Grains.

Grams.

1

= 12

= 240

= 5,760

= 373.24

1

= 20

= 480

= 31.10

1

= 24

= 1.56

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.

lb.

3

3

3

gr.

Pound.

Ounces.

Drachms.

Scruples.

Grains.

Grams..

1 =

12

= 96

= 288

= 5,760

= 373.24

1

= 8

= 24

= 480

= 31.10

1

= 3

= 60

= 3.89

1

= 20

= 1.80

1

= .06

The pound, ounce, and grain are the same as in Troy weight.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

Pound.

Ounces.

Drachms.

Grains (Troy).

Grams.

1 =

16 =

256 =

7,000

= 453.60

1 =

16 =

437.5

= 2. 17

1 =

27.34

= 53.87

English Weights And Measures

Apothecaries' Weight.

20 Grains

= 1 Scruple

= 20 Grains.

3 Scruples

= 1 Drachm

== 60 Grains.

8 Drachms

= 1 Ounce

= 480 Grains.

12 Ounces

= 1 Pound

= 5760 Grains.

FLUID MEASURE.

60 Minims

= 1 Fluid Drachm.

8 Drachms

= 1 Fluid Ounce.

20 Ounces

= 1 Pint.

8 Pints

= 1 Gallon.

The above weights are usually adopted in formulae.

All Chemicals are usually sold by

Avoirdupois Weight.

271/3 1/2 Grains

= 1 Drachm =

27|1/31/2 Grains.

16 Drachms

= 1 Ounce =

4371/2 Grains.

16 Ounces

= 1 Pound =

7000 Grains.

Precious Metals are usually sold by

Troy Weight.

24 Grains

= 1 Pennyweight

= 24 Grains.

20 Pennyweights

= 1 Ounce

= 480 Grains.

12 Ounces

= 1 Pound

= 5760 Grains.

Note. - An ounce of metallic silver contains 480 grains, but an ounce of nitrate of silver contains only 437 1/2 grains.

United States Fluid Measure.

Gal.

Pints.

Ounces.

Drachms.

Mins.

Cub. In.

Grains.

Cub. C. M.

1

= 8 =

= 128 =

1,024 =

61,440 =

231.

= 58,328.886

= 3,785.44

1 =

= 16 =

128 =

7,680 =

28.875

= 7,291.1107

= 473.18

1 =

8 =

480 =

1.8047

= 455.6944

= 29.57

1 =

60 =

0.2256

= 56.9618

= 3.70

Imperial British Fluid Measure.

Gal.

Pints.

Ounces.

Drachms.

Mins.

Cub. In.

Grains.

Cub. C. M.

1

= 8 =

160 =

= 1,280 =

76,800

= 277.27384 =

70,000

= 4,543.732

1=

20

= 160 =

9,600

= 34.65923 =

8,750

= 567.966

1

8 =

480

= 1.73296 =

437.5

= 28.398

1 =

60

= 0.21662 =

54.96

= 3.550

Metric System Of Weights And Measures

MEASURES OF LENGTH.

Denominations and Values.

Equivalents in Use.

Myriameter.................

10,000 meters.

6.2137 miles.

Kilometer

1,000 meters.

.62187 mile, or 3,280 ft. 10 in.

Hectometer..................

100 meters.

328. feet and 1 inch.

Dekameter..................

10 meters.

393.7 inches.

Meter.......................

1 meter.

39.37 inches.

Decimeter

l-10th of a meter.

3.987 inches.

Centimeter

l-100th of a meter.

.3937 inch.

Millimeter...................

l-lOOOthof a meter.

.0394 inch.

MEASURES OF SURFACE.

Denominations

and Values.

Equivalents in Use.

Hectare

10,000 square meters.

2.471 acres.

Are.............................

100 square meters.

119.6 square yards.

Centare.........................

1 square meter.

1,550. square inches.

MEASURES OF VOLUME.

Denominations and Values.

Equivalents in Use.

Names.

No. OF Liters

Cubic Measures.

Dry Measure.

Wine Measure.

Kiloliter or stere

1,000

1 cubic meter.

1.308 cubic yards.

264.17 gals.

Hectoliter........

100

l-10th cubic meter.

2 bu. and 3.35 pecks.

26.417 gals.

Dekaliter.........

10

10 cubic decimeters.

9.08 quarts.

2.6417 gals.

Liter..............

1

1 cubic decimeter.

.908 quart.

1.0567 qts.

1-10

l-10th cu. decimeter.

6.1023 cubic inches.

.845 gill.

Centiliter........

1-100

10 cubic centimeters.

.6102 cubic inch.

.338 fl. oz.

Milliliter.........

1-1000

1 cubic centimeter.

.061 cubic inch.

.27 fl. drm.

WEIGHTS.

Denominations and Values.

Equivalents in Use.

Names.

Number of Grams.

Weight of Volume of Water at its Maximum Density.

Avoirdupois Weight.

Millier or Tonneau.....

1,000,000

1 cubic meter.

2204.6 pounds.

Quintal

100,000

1 hectoliter.

220.46 pounds.

Myriagram..............

10,000

10 liters.

22.046 pounds.

Xilogram or Kilo.......

1,000

1 liter.

2.2046 pounds.

Hectometer

100

1 deciliter.

3.5274 ounces.

Dekagram...............

10

10 cubic centimeters.

.3527 ounce.

Gram

1

1 cubic centimeter.

15.432 grains.

Decigram

1-10

l-10th of a cubic centimeter.

1.5432 grain.

Centigram...............

1-100

10 cubic millimeters.

.1543 grain.

Milligram...............

1-1000

1 cubic millimeter.

.0154 grain.

For measuring surfaces, the square dekameter is used under the term of ARE; the hectare, or 100 ares, is equal to about 21/2 acres. The unit of capacity is the cubic decimeter or LITER, and the series of measures is formed in the same way as in the case of the table of lengths. The cubic meter is the unit of measure for solid bodies, and is termed STERE. The unit of weight is the GRAM, which is the weight of one cubic centimeter of pure water weighed in a vacuum at the temperature of four deg. Cent, or 39.2 deg. Fahr., which is about its temperature of maximum density. In practice, the term cubic centimeter abbreviated c. c, is generally used instead of milliliter, and cubic meter instead of kiloliter,

Freezing Mixtures.

Reducing the Temperature

From

To

PARTS.

Degrees of the Celsius

Thermometer

3

Nitrate of Sodium + Water

..... +13.2 dec.

- 5.3deg.

9

Phosphate of sodium + 4 dilute Nitric acid

+ 10 "

- 9 "

3

Sulphate of sodium + 2 dilute Nitric acid

. + 10 "

-10 "

1

Nitrate of Sodium + Water

-10.6 "

1

Chloride of potassium + 4 Water. . . .

-11.8 "

5

Sal ammoniac + 5 Saltpetre + 16 Water

+10 deg.

-12 "

1

Nitrate of ammonia + 1 Water

+10

-15.5 "

8

Sulphate of sodium + 5 cone.Sulphuricacid

+10 "

-17 "

l

Sulphocyanate of Potass. + 1 Water .

+18 "

-21 "

l

Chloride of sodium + 3 Snow........

-21 "

i

Sal ammoniac + 1 Saltpetre + 1 Water

+ 8 deg.

-24 "

3

Crystal, chloride of calcium + 1 Snow

-36 "

1

Snow + 1 dilute Sulphuric acid

- 5 deg.

-41 "

Antidote for Metol Poisoning.

There is a serious drawback to the use of Metol, as with some people it brings on an irritating skin trouble, leaving the fingers very sensitive and tender.

As a cure for this trouble, the following is recommended : Take first Rochelle Salts to open the bowels, and next day use Swift's Special Specific, (S. S. S.) according to directions for scrofula. Attention should be paid to the general health, any tendency toward dyspepsia and constipation at once to be checked.

The following ointment is good and very healing:

Ichthyol.................

,.................. 1 dram.

Lanoline

2 drams

vaseline

3 drams

Boric Acid

2 drams

A drop of oil of lavender destroys the odor of the ichthyol and lan-oline, and makes the ointment pleasant. It should be well rubbed into the skin, and at nights a good plan is to wear cotton gloves so that the ointment will not rub off nor stain the clothing. The ointment is also good for cuts and burns.

Another remedy, which, however, is rather severe, is to soak the hands in a strong solution of salt and vinegar for fifteen minutes. Do this twice daily for three or four days.

To Remove Stains from the Hands.

Development Stains. - Yield easily to the action of lemon juice.

Nitrate of Silver Stains. - Prepare a solution of water 100 cc.; chloride of lime, 25 grms.; sulphate of soda, 50 grms. Apply with a tooth-brush.

Pyro Stains. - Wash stained parts with a 10-per-cent. solution of oxalic acid.

Amidol Stains. - Difficult to remove. Try citric acid.

Nitric Acid Stains. - Apply to stained parts a solution of permanganate of potash. Then wash freely.

The Conversion of French (Metric) into English Measure.

1

cubic centimeter

= 17 minims

1

cubic centimeters

= 34 "

3

"

= 51 "

4

"

= 68 "

or 1 dram

8 minims

5

"

= 85 "

"1 "

25 "

6

"

= 101 "

" 1 "

41 "

7

"

= 118 "

58 "

8

"

= 135 "

" 2 drams

15 "

9

"

= 152 "

" 2 "

32 "

10

"

= 169 "

" 2 "

49 "

20

"

= 338 "

" 5 ."

38 "

30

"

= 507 "

" 1 ounce

0 dram

27 minims.

40

"

= 676 "

" 1 "

3 drams

16 "

50

"

= 845 "

" 1 "

6 "

5

60

"

= 1014 "

" 2 ounces

0 "

54

70

"

= 1183 "

" 2 "

3 "

43 "

80

"

= 1352 "

" 2 "

6 "

32

90

"

= 1521 "

" 3 "

1 "

21 "

100

"

= 1690 "

" 3"

4 "

10

1000

"

= 1 liter = 34

fluid ounce

s nearly, or

21/8 pints.

The Conversion of French (Metric) into English Weight.

The following table, which contains no error greater than one-tenth of a grain, will suffice for most practical purposes:

1 gram

= 154 grains

2 grams

= 304 4/5 "

3 "

= 464 "

4 "

= 61 4/5 "

.......... or

1 dram

14 grain.

5 "

= 774 "

"

1 "

174 grains.

6 "

= 92 3/5 "

"

1 "

32 3/5 "

7 "

= 108

"

1 "

48

8 "

= 1234 2/5 "

"

2 drams

3 2/5 "

9 "

= 138| "

"

2 "

18 4/5 "

10 "

= 154 2/5 "

"

2 "

344

11 "

= 1694 "

"

2 "

49 4/5 "

12 "

= 185| "

"

3 "

5 1/5 "

13 "

= 200 3/5 "

"

3 "

20 3/5 "

14 "

= 216

"

3 "

36

15 "

= 2312/5 "

"

3 "

51 2/5 "

16 "

= 247

"

4 "

7

17 "

= 262/5 | "

"

4 "

224

18 "

= 277 4/5 "

"

4 "

37 4/5

19 "

= 293 1/5 "

"

4 "

534

20 "

= 308 3/5 "

"

5 "

8 3/5 "|

30 "

= 463

7 "

43 "

40 "

= 617 1/5 "

"

10 "

174

50 "

= 771 3/5 "

"

12 "

513/5 "

60 "

= 926 "

"

15 "

26

70 "

= 1080 1/5 "

"

18 "

01/5 "

80 "

= 1234 3/5 "

"

20 "

34 3/5 "

90 "

= 1389

"

23 "

9

100 "

= 1543 1/5 "

25 "

43 1/5 "

1000 "

= 1 kilogram = 32 oz., 1 dr., 12 2/5 gr.