In a way it is a very good thing to be unable to tell when a print is fixed by looking at it. We are more likely then to be sure that fixing is thorough.

A properly developed, fixed and washed print is as permanent as paper, gelatine and silver can make it.

But if a permanent silver image has not been created because of improper manipulation, or if chemicals that should create the permanent image have not been entirely eliminated from the gelatine after they have performed their duty, various changes may occur to the image and these may partially destroy it.

When a print has been exposed and developed there is usually just about as much unexposed silver remaining in the print as you see in the developed image. And it is just as important to get this silver out as it is to keep the silver image in.

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PORTRAIT FILM NEGATIVE, V1TAVA PRINT

By Lee Saylor-Harris Studio Chicago, III.

To eliminate all of the unexposed and undeveloped silver and leave only the permanent image, the print is fixed. Fixing is nothing more than the dissolving of the silver bromide, which is still sensitive to light, and removing it from the gelatine. The fixing agent may be said to drive the silver out of the gelatine.

Sodium hyposulphite, commonly called hypo, is one of the very few chemicals which will dissolve silver bromide. When a print is placed in a freshly made fixing bath the hypo combines with the bromide of silver, forming silver thiosulphate. In the first stages of its formation this compound is insoluble. So long as there is an excess of hypo, however, the compound changes to a soluble one and is expelled from the gelatine into the fixing solution.

The importance of getting this silver out of the print should not be underestimated. Bromide of silver is not only in the places where we see no image, but it is even under and all about the silver grains which form the image and must be eliminated to insure a permanent picture.

The fixing danger lies in the use of an exhausted fixing bath - one which has been used for too many prints and which is not strong enough in hypo to form the soluble silver salt.When the fixing bath is used for too many prints and the hypo becomes exhausted, the print does not fix. When a large number of prints are fixed at one time and are not constantly separated, those that mat together are not sufficiently acted upon by the hypo to form soluble silver and the print doesn't fix. And if this silver is not dissolved out of the print in the fixing bath no amount of washing will remove it.

Later on when the prints are beyond recall, this silver thiosulphate is decomposed by the action of air and light and the prints turn yellow. The silver image itself is affected by the decomposed silver all about it and the print is said to have faded because it has changed to a disagreeable yellow color.

The safe way to fix prints is to handle them over thoroughly in a fresh bath, allowing one gallon of solution for each gross of 8 x 10 or 10 x 12 prints or their equivalent. To fix prints in large quantities it is safer to use two fixing baths. The first bath may be one that has been used but is not exhausted. The second bath should be a fresh one. The prints may remain for fifteen minutes in each bath.

When you know you have put the limit of prints through the first bath, throw it away. The second bath takes its place and a fresh bath is made up for the second fixing.There are other dangers of fixing prints in an exhausted bath. Such a bath is saturated with silver and the print will carry some of this silver into the wash water. If not thoroughly washed the silver will remain in the print, change to silver sulphide and appear as stains.

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PORTRAIT FILM NEGATIVE, VITAVA PRINT

By Lee Saylor-Harris Studio Chicago, III

There should be no need of washing silver compounds out of either a print or a negative. If the fixing has been thorough it will only be necessary to wash out the hypo which is a very simple matter.

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By Lee Saylor-Harris Studio Chicago, III.

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By Lee Baylor-Harris Studio Chicago, III.

The Importance Of Thorough Fixing StudioLightMagazine1923 175

The Pictures And The Man Who Made Them

It is a great deal easier to talk about a man's work than about the man himself, especially when you have seen more of the work than you have of the man.

A bit of history, however, is helpful because it often gives one an insight into the influences that have had a bearing on what has been accomplished.

Lee J. Savior was born in Canton, Ohio, and had his first photographic experience under Theodore Endean, a distinguished portrait photographer of Cleveland. He was later associated with James Ryder of Cleveland and other photographers of prominence.

About eighteen years ago Mr. Savior located in Chicago and for the past ten years has worked along independent lines, developing an individual style of work which has covered a wide field. Since the beginning of the year he has had associated with him Mr. M. E. Harris, an artist of more than ordinary ability.Mr. Savior tells us that in all departments of photography he has found the Eastman products most dependable and that he uses Eastman Film exclusively.

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PORTRAIT FILM NEGATIVE, VITAVA PRINT

By Lee Saylor-flarris Studio Chicago, III.

That is about the extent of what you would get from Mr. Savior were you to interview him.