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The Sinclair Handbook Of Photography | by James A. Sinclair



The aim of this book is to answer as clearly as possible many of the enquiries that are addressed to us from day to day in the course of our business. The majority of people to whom the fascination of the photographic process appeals on one ground or another, do not want to examine too minutely its scientific side...

TitleThe Sinclair Handbook Of Photography
AuthorJames A. Sinclair
PublisherJames A. Sinclair & Co., Ltd.
Year1913
Copyright1913, James A. Sinclair
AmazonThe Sinclair handbook of photography

The Sinclair Handbook Of Photography

A Practical Guide To The Processes Of Modern Photography By Leading Experts

Edited By James A. Sinclair, F.R.P.S.

Second Edition

Price One Shilling And Sixpence Nett.

Published By James A. Sinclair & Co., Ltd.,

Photographic And Scientific Apparatus Manufacturers,

54, Haymarket, London, S.W,

-Preface
The aim of this book is to answer as clearly as possible many of the enquiries that are addressed to us from day to day in the course of our business. The majority of people to whom the fascination of...
-Chapter I. The Camera And The Lens
Photography is one of the most delightful of recreations, and whether we are interested in it for its pictorial possibilities, its value as a recording medium, or for the scientific phenomena of which...
-The Camera And The Lens. Part 2
(a) The Watkins Pinhole Lens is a cheap and desirable adjunct for those who wish to do this work with an ordinary camera. (b) For Table of Exposures ; see Appendix. Moreover, there is another pe...
-The Camera And The Lens. Part 3
Amateurs are often prone to imagine that there is some marvellous property inherent in portrait lenses, and they frequently purchase and take home with glee a prize found in some pawnshop. The older w...
-The Camera And The Lens. Part 4
If we look at a dealer's catalogue we shall at first feel bewildered by the multitude of lenses all seemingly doing, or capable of, the same work, and only varying from each other by f values, or foci...
-Chapter II. The Photographic Plate Or Film
The sensitive plate or film is a very wonderful thing. The essential part of it consists of a thin film of gelatine containing certain salts of silver. When light strikes this compound of gelatine and...
-Chapter III. Exposing The Plate
On the exposure the whole of our after success depends, and consequently too much consideration cannot be given to this portion of our subject. Fortunately for the photographer the photographic emulsi...
-Exposing The Plate. Continued
Such hints as these will help the beginner, and although exposures given are approximate only, we think they will be found of use in showing the principles governing this important subject. THE EFF...
-Chapter IV. The Dark-Room And Its Equipment
For developing our plates a dark-room is essential, and when we say a dark-room we mean a real black room, as they have it in French, and not a room in which things are barely visible after...
-Chapter V. Developing The Plate Or Film
First catch your hare, then cook him, says the old proverb, and providing a plate has been exposed in accordance with the foregoing instructions, and our dark-room being at command, we may finish th...
-Developing The Plate Or Film. Continued
The plate at this stage should look like a clean, good negative, and when viewed by transmitted light the dark parts should not appear absolutely opaque. If laid down on a sheet of white paper there s...
-Chapter VI. Hand Cameras. - Their Selection And Use
By James A. Sinclair, F.R.P.S. The selection of a Hand Camera requires as much care as the selection of a wife, and yet many people drift into this branch of photographic work with as little consci...
-Hand Cameras. - Their Selection And Use. Part 2
Type 1. The Kodak Class. Although I never use a Kodak, yet I am often compelled to recommend a camera of this type. To the tourist and traveller to whom bulk is of paramount importance, who won't cons...
-Hand Cameras. - Their Selection And Use. Part 3
When these lines were penned we had no idea that what appeared an unsolvable problem would so soon be solved. For to better understand the difficulties in the way of successfully making a reflex camer...
-Hand Cameras. - Their Selection And Use. Part 4
It is a form well suited for colour photography. A great convenience to this type has recently been added to the Sinclair Una in the form of revolving back. This enables the plate to be instanta...
-Hand Cameras. - Their Selection And Use. Part 5
Test the Finder. While examining the camera to see if the scale is correct, look at the finder and see if the image coincides with that given on the focussing screen. Should it not do so it may perhap...
-Chapter VII. The Hand Camera And Its Possibilities
By JAMES A. SINCLAIR, F.R.P.S. We live in the hand-camera age, and as modern photography is the apotheosis of the snap-shot, it may seem late in the day to write an article on the possibilities of ...
-Chapter VIII. The Camera At Home
By E. T. HOLDING, F.R.P.S. There is a widespread superstition amongst the inexperienced in matters photographic that it is easier to do landscape than figure work. The natural consequence of this m...
-The Camera At Home. Part 2
The portrait lens must work rapidly and give the quickest possible exposure ; and this, of course, is done by designing it to work at a larger aperture, i.e., one admitting more light than is necessar...
-The Camera At Home. Part 3
The Fairy Tale. E. T. Holding. his attention on the pose and management of his sitter. Of the principles that should guide him in these matters it is not for me to speak. They will be prompt...
-The Camera At Home. Part 4
If it is intended to use part of the room, or its furniture, as a background, care must be exercised in the disposal of such features as will appear in the picture. In itself, the room may be a model ...
-Chapter IX. Flashlight Photography
By F. J. MORTIMER, F.R.P.S., Editor of the Amateur Photographer and Photographic News. The production of photographs by magnesium light, commonly known as flashlight, is possibly one of t...
-Flashlight Photography. Part 2
Plain magnesium may also be fired with a lighted match or taper if spread on gun cotton, but the flash is not so quick or brilliant as with the mixture. FLASH POWDERS. Flashlight mixtures and p...
-Flashlight Photography. Part 3
Fig. 2. The sitter after being posed - in any case not looking at the light (a pleasing effect is obtained by looking at the reflector (6) and allowing the direct light to fall on the back of t...
-Flashlight Photography. Part 4
A tripod camera with focussing adjustments is far more likely to give satisfactory results than the box-form fixed-focus variety. The better the quality of the lens and the larger the aperture it work...
-Recapitulation. Some Pointers In Flashlight Photography
1. Never use a flash powder in a reservoir lamp - only plain magnesium. 2. Any good fast plate that the worker is used to is the best for flashlight work. 3. Eight feet from the floor is a good ...
-Chapter X. Telephotography For Amateurs
By CAPT. OWEN WHEELER, F.R.P.S. If you take an ordinary photographic lens and place behind it, at a suitable separation, a negative lens (i.e., one which diminishes objects viewed through it), you ...
-Telephotography For Amateurs. Continued
I will now try to illustrate the greater part of the principles laid down above by a single graphic example. You have, let us suppose, a 6-in. ordinary photographic lens and 2-in. tele-negative co...
-Telephoto Requisites
Before taking up telephotography - unless he is prepared to procure an entirely new and specially selected kit, the amateur will do well to make sure that his existing apparatus fulfils certain necess...
-Getting To Work
A good way for a beginner is to make a general practice of focussing any object which he intends to telephotograph first with his ordinary lens. This will enable him to get a fair idea of the degree o...
-Exposure
And now for a few words as to the chief difficulty in telephotography, namely, the exposure. I am far from saying that this is not a real difficulty, and I do not mind confessing that I sometimes go r...
-Chapter XI. The Art Of Intensifying And Reducing Negatives
By J. McINTOSH, F.R.P.S., Secretary of the Royal Photographic Society. In applying methods of intensification and reduction, it is necessary for complete success that the photographer should hav...
-The Art Of Intensifying And Reducing Negatives . Part 2
In the second place we may take the case of a correctly exposed negative, but with which the development has been checked before the whole surface of the plate has darkened over. A print made from suc...
-The Art Of Intensifying And Reducing Negatives . Part 3
No. 1. Mercuric chloride....... 100 grains. Potassium bromide........ 100 Water (distilled) ........ 10 ...
-The Art Of Intensifying And Reducing Negatives . Part 4
An under-exposed negative which contains no strong contrasts, may be developed very fully without harm ensuing, if only fog, whether due to the developer or the light of the dark-room lamp, is avoided...
-Chapter XII. Printing On P.O. Paper
Probably at some period of the photographer's career, he or she passes through the P.O.P. stage. P.O.P. means in short Printing-Out Paper, and were the initials used by the Ilford Company to des...
-Printing On P.O. Paper. Continued
If it is desired to get a fine and even enamelled surface the prints are squeegeed on to plate glass or some other glossy surface. This may be done after washing, but to ensure their leaving the surfa...
-Chapter XIII. Bromide Printing And Developing
By J. STERRY, Honorary Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society. As the first catalogue of Bromide Papers, taken at random, gives eighteen varieties from which to make a choice, the beginner may...
-Exposure In Printing
As it has been shown that with a given negative there is one kind of paper which (say, for contact printing) will give the best results with full development, it is easy to see that the exposure must ...
-The Developer
Bromide Papers. - Almost any developer may be used, but one of the most satisfactory is amidol. A stock solution of sodium sulphite is made of about 10 grains to the ounce of water, and a little time ...
-Extension Of The Gradation
It only now remains to describe the method of using the modification in development, which will extend the scale of gradation. So far nothing is known that will decrease gradation in the developmen...
-Enlarging
The methods previously described are readily applied to enlarging. The trial exposure must be made upon a portion of paper placed in position upon the easel, the highest lights being as before sele...
-Chapter XIV. Platinotype
Although the process of printing in platinum is one of the most beautiful that can be imagined, and has the advantage of absolute permanency, yet it is not used to the extent that might reasonably be ...
-Exposure To Light
The correct exposure (about one-third of that required with silver printing) is ascertained by inspection of the paper in a rather weak white light in the usual manner. A little experience will enable...
-Exposure To Light. Part 2
6th. - The sensitive papers generally improve in condition by being kept a few weeks after manufacture. They remain in good condition for a considerable time if kept in a cool, dry place, in the speci...
-Exposure To Light. Part 3
Temperature of developer, about 1700 Fah. This developer is complete in itself and requires no addition. For those who are unable to obtain the sepia developing salts, the following developer is re...
-Chapter XV. Carbon Printing
By HENRY W. BENNETT, F.R.P.S. Although it cannot be claimed that the carbon process is the most simple of photographic printing methods, it presents no special difficulty. If the work is undertaken...
-Carbon Printing. Continued
Tissue sensitized by the formula given is approximately equal in sensitiveness to Ilford or Imperial P.O.P. A rough print may be taken of a portion of the negative on either of these papers, using the...
-Chapter XVI. Ozobrome
By THOMAS MANLY, F.R.P.S. Ozobrome is a very easy step from silver printing to carbon printing. An Ozobrome picture is a carbon picture, but it is produced in a much, easier and more convenient way...
-Chapter XVII. The Rawlins' Process Of Oil Pigment Printing
By ROBERT DEMACHY. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society. If a sheet of paper covered with a thin layer of gelatine is sensitized with bichromate, dried in the dark and exposed to da...
-The Rawlins' Process Of Oil Pigment Printing. Part 2
It is impossible to indicate an average time of exposure without talking actinometer. We will take the simplest form, the Artigue Actinometer. Smear a strip of ordinary white paper with your ammonium ...
-The Rawlins' Process Of Oil Pigment Printing. Part 3
What the beginner ought not to do is to use his muscles. Oil printing is distinctly not an athletic pastime, and a man who plays the violin well, and has a supple wrist and independent fingers, will l...
-The Rawlins' Process Of Oil Pigment Printing. Part 4
We can now pass to the last technical stages of the process. They are simple enough. The oil print when finished will have to be pinned securely on to a drawing board by its four corners, and placed n...
-Chapter XVIII. The Bromoil Process
By C. H. HEWITT, F.R.P.S. Christened by Mr. F. J. Mortimer, one of its ablest exponents, Bromoil is, as one would surmise, a combination of bromide printing with the oil pigment process. In the Raw...
-The Bromoil Process. Part 2
And now to the working and solutions. Since the earlier editions of this brochure were published a number of other bleaching solutions have been suggested and tried. Development has proceeded in tw...
-The Bromoil Process. Part 3
PREPARING FOR PIGMENTING. The print must now be placed on a pad consisting of several thicknesses of thoroughly wet blotting paper laid on a sheet of *stout glass. A roller squeegee passed lightly ...
-The Bromoil Process. Part 4
Brush Action. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. C. H. Hewitt. Brush Action. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. C.H. Hewitt. Method II. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate this method. Here the brush is held much lower ...
-The Bromoil Process. Part 5
Referring again to the distance, the part to the left of the line C D has not been hopped, but only equalized by gentle dabbing. Were this portion hopped, it would in all probability acquire too much ...
-Chapter XIX. Multi-Colour Bromoil Prints
The Methods of R. MACFARLANE COCKS and HALDANE MACFALL for Producing their Bromoil Prints in Colour. Messrs. R. Macfarlane Cocks and Haldane Macfall (the latter the well-known art critic), who have...
-Multi-Colour Bromoil Prints. Continued
Mr. Haldane Macfall said a safe method to commence pigmenting, generally, was to cover the print with a pale blue (cobalt and white mixed) as a means of inking up the picture to see where the colours ...
-Chapter XX. Multi-Colour Bromoil Transfer
MR. C. F. STUART'S METHODS. Amongst the most notable colour subjects that have recently been produced by the Bromoil process a leading place must be given to the work of Mr. C. F. Stuart, of Liverp...
-Multi-Colour Bromoil Transfer. Continued
So far it will be seen that the preparation was exactly the same as for an ordinary Bromoil print. The next procedure was a prolonged soaking in cold water, and Mr. Stuart was strongly in favour of...
-Chapter XXI. The Gum Bichromate Process
J. C. S. MUMMERY, A.R.I.B.A., F.R.P.S. Past-President of the Royal Photographic Society. The process of printing in gum bichromate is one of the most interesting at the command of the amateur an...
-The Gum Bichromate Process. Continued
The whole operation should not occupy more than about 50 seconds,and the resulting tint on the paper should be level and even; the small ridges left by the hairs of the softener will level down as the...
-Chapter XXII. Autochrome Manipulations
The introduction of the Autochrome plate puts it within the power of the amateur photographer to record the colour as well as the outline, light and shade of his subject, and that with very-little mor...
-Autochrome Manipulations. Part 2
The exposure in this, as in all photography, is the crux. Unless a meter is employed, there will be a great waste of plates. In a good light it is safe to assume that the Autochrome plate, with its ye...
-Autochrome Manipulations. Part 3
The object of this second development is to darken the creamy white silver bromide, by reducing it to a metallic state. Daylight is important at this stage ; and if the darkening has to be done at nig...
-Autochrome Manipulations. Part 4
After intensification the Autochrome must be rinsed for at least half a minute, more rather than less, and is then placed in plain permanganate solution H for a minute. It is again rinsed for a fu...
-How To Secure Instantaneous Exposures On Autochrome And Omnicolour Plates
Many attempts have been made to secure instantaneous results on Autochrome plates but the methods employed have been uncertain in result and the procedure beyond the abilities of the average worker. ...
-More on How To Secure Instantaneous Exposures On Autochrome And Omnicolour Plates
AUTOCHROME DIFFICULTIES. Green spots in the finished plate. These are caused through water penetrating the waterproof coating on the surface of the starch grains owing to its perforation, usually by p...
-Chapter XXIII. Success In Lantern Slide Making
It is doubtful whether a photograph can give as much pleasure in any other way as by means of a transparency shown in the lantern. But the transparency, or lantern slide as it is termed, must be good ...
-Success In Lantern Slide Making. Part 2
LANTERN SLIDE PRINTING FRAMES. 8 1/2 X 6 1/2. It consists of a flat board covered with cloth, against which the surface of the negative is held by two rubber-covered brass springs. A hole in the ce...
-Success In Lantern Slide Making. Part 3
HARDENING THE FILM. Formalin......... 1 ounce. Water................ 9 ounces. To further preserve the slide it should be varnish...
-Success In Lantern Slide Making. Part 4
We roughly centre our light, but when we look at the focussing screen in the position where our lantern plate will be, it is probably quite unevenly illuminated, and we may be puzzled how to adjus...
-Success In Lantern Slide Making. Part 5
The Specialist Lantern Slide Binder. We are frequently asked for particulars of the best methods for colouring lantern sildes, and for those who wish to do this work we should recommend the J...
-Chapter XXIV. The Magic Lantern And Its Use
I purposely use the term magic lantern, although this old title has how fallen into desuetude. Educationalists know the great value of early impressions and I doubt if any entertainment so much imp...
-The Magic Lantern And Its Use. Part 2
Best Lantern with Russian Iron Body and Stocks' Lamp. The selection of illuminant is the thing that puzzles the prospective lanternist more than anything else, and, undoubtedly, much of his own...
-The Magic Lantern And Its Use. Part 3
Showing interior of Carbide to Water Generator. The Moss-Abingdon Generator. The generators which permit of this being easily done are of two kinds known as the carbide to water and ...
-The Magic Lantern And Its Use. Part 4
LIME-LIGHT. The Blow-Through Jet. I fastened it by means of wire to the pin of the jet, and then very gradually heated it, first with the coal-gas flame and then turned on the oxygen, little...
-The Magic Lantern And Its Use. Part 5
For any ordinary lantern entertainment, providing the worker has an efficient jet, a 6-ft. gas bottle, which only measures 14 in. by 4 in. and weighs 10 lbs., will be found sufficient ; but most worke...
-The Magic Lantern And Its Use. Part 6
THE CONDENSER. The condenser is the lens which collects the light and passes it through the slide to the objective. Condensers are of various forms and are mostly supplied of 4 inches or 4 1/2 inch...
-The Magic Lantern And Its Use. Part 7
THE LANTERN SCREEN. TO GET AN EVEN AND PERFECT LIGHT ON THE SCREEN. The adjustment of the light is always a matter of some little difficulty to the beginner, and by following our instruction...
-Chapter XXV. Law For Photographers
By E. B. V. CHRISTIAN, LL.B. It is chiefly in matters of copyright that the photographer meets Old Father Antic the Law. In the lesser transactions of life, buying, selling and getting gain, marryi...
-What is an Original Photograph ?
We can understand, said Mr. Justice Blackburn, the difference between an original painting or design and a copy of it ; but it is hard to say what an original photograph is. All photographs are c...
-The Photographer and the Sitter
Both under the old and the new law the photographer is not the owner of the copyright, when the photograph is ordered by the sitter or some other person and is to be paid for. The Act of 1862 used the...
-Length of Copyright
Under the old law the term was the life of the author and seven years after. The new law (less favourable to photographers than to other artists and authors) gives fifty years from the making of the o...
-What is an Infringement ?
It is an infringement to do anything which the author has, under the act, the sole right to do - to produce or reproduce the work, or any substantial part of it ; or to sell or let for hire, or exhibi...
-Other Things Forbidden
Some sections of the Fine Arts Protection Act 1862 remain unrepealed. Under these it is an offence fraudulently to (1) Sign or affix, or cause to be signed or affixed, to any photograph, or the neg...
-The Photographer at Large
Although a new copyright in architectural works is created by the act, the privileges of the photographer have been preserved. The legislature (borrowing an idea, as Mr. S. P. Kerr has pointed out in ...
-Weights and Measures
APOTHECARIES' WEIGHTS. 20 grains = 1 scruple. 3 scruples = 1 dram. 8 drams = 1 ounce. 12 ounces = 1 pound. This gives 480 grains to the ounce and 5760 grains to the pound. When you buy 1 ounce o...
-Pinhole Photography
WATKINS' TABLE OF PINHOLE DISTANCES. Wat kins' Power Number. Inch. Nearest Needle Number. Most suitable distance. 3 ...
-Lens Facts
Table showing distance of object upon which to focus with any stop in order to secure the greatest depth (hyper focal distances). To Find the Hyper Focal Distance the formula is : - Focal length sq...
-The Effective Aperture of a Stop
When a Stop is placed between the combinations of a double lens, the effective aperture is not given by measuring its diameter. Rays of light, directly they pass through the outside lens, converge, ...
-Approximate Infinity For Lenses Of Various Focal Lengths
By C. Welborne Piper, from The First Book of the Lens. Focal Length. Inches. Distance of Focussing Screen behind Principal Focus. 1/100 in. ...
-Tele-Photo Calculations
To find the Camera Extension necessary for a given magnification. Multiply the focal length of negative lens by magnification less 1. Example. Magnification 5 and negative lens 3 inches, then 3 ...
-U.S. Numbers On Lenses
Some people imagine that U.S. refers to the United States, because Kodaks are usually so marked. The letters, however, mean Uniform Standard, and were formerly adopted by the Royal Photographic Soc...
-Useful Tables For Enlarging, Reducing Or Copying
When Enlarging, Reducing, or Copying we frequently want to know the positions for lens, negative and enlarging board. The formula is a simple one. Multiply the focus of the lens by the times of enl...
-Shutter Speeds For Moving Objects
From the Wellcome Exposure Record and Diary. The formula and table given below indicate the shutter speeds necessary to secure negatives sufficiently sharp for direct printing. For enlarging it ...
-Amidol Developer For Bromide Papers
(Wellington Formula.) Amidol 50 grains. Sodium sulphite .......... 650 Potassium bromide ........ 10 ...
-Acid Fixing Bath For Bromide Papers
Hypo 4 ounces. Potassium metabisulphite...... 200 grains. Water .............. 1 pint. Immerse prints ...
-Toning Bromide Prints
Make two Stock Solutions as follows : - No. I. Potassium ferricyanide 400 grains. Potassium bromide 600 ,, ...
-Are you ready for the UNA?
The key to your progress is your camera. Does it limit you - hold you back from that better work you wish, always, to do ? The limitations of your outfit build a wall about your progress as a practica...
-Why a Reflex?
Well then, here are some of the reasons. With a reflex camera you have visible and certain focussing up to the very instant of exposure. Even as the joy of reading is mostly in the recognition of what...









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previous page: Art Principles In Portrait Photography | by Otto Walter Beck
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Modern Photography In Theory And Practice. Hand Book For The Amateur | by Henry G. Abbott