This section is from the book "Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction", by Laura I. Baldt. Also available from Amazon: Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction.
Several rows of gathers, at various distances apart, drawn up, for the purpose of ornamentation, yoke effect in skirts and waists, etc. Stitches do not have to lie one directly under the other (Fig. 103).
To work: Baste seam carefully; begin stitching with a few small running stitches, starting one-half inch from the end of the cloth, and sewing from left to right until one-eighth inch from the end; turn work and take one stitch back to the end of the cloth, pass needle under twice that space on the wrong side, coming through to the right side, and back to the end of the first stitch formed, then through to the wrong side and forward twice the length of the upper stitch; cover running stitches with stitching; repeat (Fig. 104).
Fig. 103. - Shirring.
To join thread: When last stitch is made, as needle passes to wrong side of cloth, take two stitches directly over last stitch, but only through one thickness of cloth, then draw the needle through the last stitch to make loop knot for fastening. Begin with new thread as at first, making stitch appear unbroken on the upper side. To fasten: Same as in joining thread. Backstitching. - Form: Stitches do not meet on right side; there is a space between, like running stitch.
Fig. 104. - Stitching, right and wrong sides.
Use: When there is not as great need of strength as in stitching.
To make: Same as in stitching, passing needle under three times as much cloth on the wrong side, and coming back half way to the end of the last stitch on the right side (Fig. 105).
To join and fasten: Same as in stitching.
Form: Right side, three stitches meeting, space, three others meeting, space; repeated.
Use: Where not a great deal of strength is required, fells, French seams, etc.
Fig. 105. - Back stitching, right and wrong sides.
To make: Begin same as stitching and backstitching; take two running stitches, let needle come to right side of cloth, as if to take another, but pass the needle back to the last running stitch, and through to wrong side of the cloth, passing under the last stitch on the wrong side and up through the same hole through which the thread passed last. Take two running stitches and repeat (Fig. 106).