1. Surface Treatment. - The attractive glossy surface of broadcloth and kindred fabrics is obtained after the cloth has been woven, by means of additional processes which greatly add to the cost of its manufacture. After weaving, the cloth goes through a lengthy fulling process, which so mats the fibers that they will never ravel.

Fig. 6.   Silk brocade showing up and down in design, produced by weave.

Fig. 6. - Silk brocade showing up and down in design, produced by weave.

Fig. 7.   Chiffon Brocade, illustrating waste of material in width when matching pattern of design.

Fig. 7. - Chiffon Brocade, illustrating waste of material in width when matching pattern of design.

Fig. 8.   Plaids showing an even repeat right and left, and up and down in woven design.

Fig. 8. - Plaids showing an even repeat right and left, and up and down in woven design.

The cloth is then napped, or roughed up, and sheared close, to give an even surface; it is then wetted, steamed, calendered, and pressed between hot rollers to make it lustrous. These repeated processes increase the cost of the fabric to the consumer.

2. Pattern in weaves, in self or other colors, may increase the cost of garments above that of plain materials. Figures, such as are found in brocades, Swisses, etc., often produce an up and down, or right and left to the pattern, and by reason of their size, may waste considerable material in matching the pattern when seaming the parts of the gown (Figs. 6 and 7).

The use of colored yarns to produce pattern in weave, as in stripes and plaids, may necessitate the purchase of additional material by reason of the size of the pattern, or because of its uneven repeat of color and line, producing an up and down or right and left. Unless the design for such be carefully chosen one's figure may appear one-sided, to remedy which, the gown would need to be made with one-half wrong side out, which is not possible except with fine ginghams or similar fabrics (Figs. 8 and 9).

3. Pattern in printed design may produce the same results as above. Percales, lawns, dimities, and challis, in flowered patterns, are always more or less in vogue; in these the repeat of the pattern is sometimes irregular. If the pattern is small, it is not always noticeable, nor will it cause waste in cutting (Fig. 9B), but in large patterns this is not the case.

Fig. 9.   A, Striped gingham showing a left and right pattern in woven design: B, Challis showing an up and down pattern in printed design.

Fig. 9. - A, Striped gingham showing a left and right pattern in woven design: B, Challis showing an up and down pattern in printed design.

4. Color, such as produced in "changeable" silks, frequently necessitates cutting a garment as though the cloth had an up and down. Reversal of the pieces in cutting may make a complete change in the color. Some surface finishes, as in fine Henrietta, will show a difference in color if cut so as to reverse the pieces in a garment.