This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.

This method is based upon the longitudinal location of the "ankle" in relation to the foot's length, and this proportion also gives the "ankle bone " height from the margin of the foot. In construction it is usual to assume the last as representing the foot, and to neglect the additional allowance of length of the last.

First obtain a forme, or surface-area of the last. Place the forme upon the piece of paper to be used for the standard construction, and trace its outline (Fig. 113). From C measure, in a downward direction, the height of heel the last will carry, or the height desired less forepart substance. Connect this point, B, with the swell of the joint, and construct the base-line. At A and B erect perpendiculars of suitable length, so that they pass the toe end, and the extreme back of the forme respectively. The base-line AB is divided into four equal parts, and one of the sub-divisions, measured from B, is marked D. Through this point erect a perpendicular. From E, up the perpendicular line, mark the distance BD, and thus obtain . Measure from 12/9 in. and indicate F. Through F make a line parallel to AB, and on either side of F make one-quarter of the ankle-measure, G and H. Through G and H draw line perpendicular to AB. Decide the height of pattern and mark.

* Size 4 may be taken at 5 in.

Fig.113.

Below make K, at a distance of one size, i.e. 3/9 in. Passing K, draw the heel-line from C towards the "throat." If working from a heel-measure, taken direct from the foot, which is round, allow for the squareness of the last by measuring from C 2/9in. and fix S. From S the half-heel measure is to be placed towards T. From R mark P at a distance of 4/9 in. Above P locate N 1/2 in. away. The leg-measure is to be taken backwards from N. Complete the pattern as illustrated in Fig. 113, noting, when passing H, that W is some 2/9 in. away. This is necessary, because the last length was used instead of the foot, and patterns must not be scooped out here.

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