This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.
This is a quick, and in the hands of an experienced person, a reliable method of producing a standard direct from the last without having to previously make a forme. It is to be especially recommended for bespoke and handsewn work.
The last is taken and marked for position of joint, instep, etc., and the length and girths measured. To ascertain the height of heel the last will carry, take the last and lay the joint - or line of contact - on a flat surface, and raise the heel until the seat is parallel to the surface, and if the spring of the toe be correct, measure at the back the height of heel, and transfer this direct to the pattern to be constructed (Fig. 116). If working to a given height of heel, the substance of the forepart should be deducted and the remainder used for constructing the pattern.
Table used For fixing"CounteR" and" Ankle."
(one-fifth last length).
(one-half last length).
2 1/15 2 2/15
Take the sheet of paper to be used to construct the standard and make two lines, AB, BC (Fig. 117), at right angles to each other. From B, in the direction of C, mark D, the height of heel suitable for the pattern to be made. The counter-height, taken from the table according to the size selected for the standard, will be marked from D, giving point E (Fig. 117). F is obtained in the same way by using the ank.le-height from the table. The length of the pattern, taken from the scale on p. 125, is measured from E towards H. From F the half-ankle measurement is placed to K. The last is taken and laid on the paper so that the seat and back coincide respectively with D and E, at the same time touching the line AB at the swell of the joint of the last. The last is traced and the positions of taking the necessary girths located in the same direction on the paper. The correct spring of the toe should also be registered.
The last removed, apply the measures to the pattern, following the principle of measuring all points from some other point or points. Care should be taken not to have the pattern "lark-heeled" at the back. The lighter and more stretchy the material, coupled with the presence or absence of a leather lining, so will this shape be influenced. The point N will show the usual shaping, while P would suit a non-giving upper material that is designed for a leather lining and suitable stiffening. The remaining stages of the completion may be easily understood by the inspection of Fig. 117.