This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.
The Lower Limbs occupy the lower half of the figure, and are the means of support and locomotion. The proportion they occupy relatively to the whole figure will be seen by reference to Fig. 4. They are larger and more powerful than the upper limbs, and give proof of the erect position being natural to man. The bones that comprise each limb are twenty-nine in number - viz. the femur, tibia, fibula, seven tarsal and five metatarsal bones, and fourteen phalanges. Professor Humphrey made an average of twenty-five European skeletons, and found the height to be 65 inches; and of this the femur (thigh-bone) occupies 17.9 inches, the tibia (leg-bone) 14.4 inches, the foot 106 inches. The bones of the thigh at the hip are about a foot apart, and as they descend they slant inwards, nearly touching each other at the knee.
The Study of the Bones is termed Osteology. Some of the terms used simplify the description, such as anterior portion of a bone - so described when viewing the bone from the front of the body; posterior, when viewing from the back. The long bones in the limbs act as axes, and are composed of two parts - the body, or shaft, and two extremities, or epiphyses. The small bones in the foot are somewhat wedge-shaped.