This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.
One method to cut the pattern for this style of boot is to draw a line, and at one end erect a perpendicular. Up this the height of heel desired is marked. The counter-height (taken from such a scale as given on p. 138) is next measured from the seat. The last is taken and laid, so that the hack touches the counter-height, and, at the same time, the joints and seat of the last are made to coincide with the correct marks on the paper. While the last is in this position, the positions of the places of measurement are marked and the outline traced. The front position-line is obtained by taking one-half of the last's length, and marking it along the base-line from the perpendicular. The ankle is made about an inch in excess of that obtained by measuring the foot. This is to allow for the thickness of the tongue, etc. The heel allowance requires enough for the amount taken by the tongue and the substance of the lining and stiffening, as well as for the shape of the last at the seat. The top is made about a half of an inch smaller than the calf.
The pattern may be constructed by the "Pattern Constructor" shown by Fig. 141. The mode of using this tool will be understood by referring to Figs. 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, and 147. The height of this design is about 15 or 16 in., for, say, a size seven. In Fig. 154 this style is illustrated. The unnecessary preliminary construction lines have been omitted for the sake of clearness. AB is the heel-line and CD the calf. A fourfold tongue is needed for this design. The inclination will be varied as to the kind of making-system, or want of one, adopted. This boot may be cut with a whole golosh or vamp and quarter. Care should be taken not to make the opening too low down the leg of the pattern, the rule being that from F in Fig. 154 to the other side of the leg below D, the distance should not be less than the heel-measure. A buckle and strap is used to fasten the opening at E, which has a gusset-tongue on the inside. It is well to incline the top forward to allow the boot to assume an upright position at the top when made. Wellington.
The fronts are usually purchased ready blocked, and it is customary to apply the measures direct to the leather front. From the throat one-half of the heel measure is marked in the direction of the seat. At the top one-half of the calf measurement is placed; this is joined with a straight cut. At a distance of 2 in. from the bottom, make a curved line some distance of 3/16 in. The height is about 13 to 14 for a seven's. Another way of proceeding is illustrated in Fig. 155, where AB is made the full heel-measure and AC some 3/4 in. less. EF is made the same as the heel-measure. GH is the calf, the centre being P. EF is distanced some 5 ins. from the bottom. The amount taken out from the straight-cut line is about 1/4 in. for stouter materials and 5/16 in. for lighter. The cutting of a dress Wellington will not be difficult, when a Wellington can be properly cut. Fig. 156 gives a made-up long boot (a dress Wellington), and will show what is the correct position of the leg. The side seam must be straight when made. Butcher.
This, and the coachman and jockey, are made from 15 to 16 in. high, and are nearly the same in design. They may be designed by making a line on a suitable sheet of paper, and at one end erecting a line at right angles to the first drawn line. One-half of the length of the last is measured from this upright line, and at this point a line is made at right angles to the base. The height of the intended boot is now determined, and a line drawn for the top edge of the pattern. The calf measure is now applied to the position given from the measure. If this position be omitted, a good rule is to place it at a distance equal to the full heel-measure of the case under consideration. The heel measurement, with suitable allowances for the counter, etc., is taken, and one-half of it applied to the tracing. The pattern is now made to measure from the throat to the back, so that the point 5 in. from the seat is the same in measurement from the throat curve as the heel-measure. The counter is made about 3 in. long and 21/4 high. The calf requires adapting in measurement to the needs of the case, as a measure taken over the trousers does not demand any allowance as would be the case with a measurement taken round the naked leg. The difference will be about from three-quarters to an inch.
Another way of producing this kind of design would be to use the method illustrated by Figs. 141,142, 143, to 147. A couple of lines are made at right angles to each other. From X the usual height of heel is marked to obtain the seat of the pattern (B, Fig. 157). Often an allowance is made here for the kind of lasting - hand-sewn or machine - so that the position of leg in making may be easily obtained. The pitch-line BA is drawn either with the pattern constructor (Fig. 141) or by making it two-thirds of the length of the last, which the pattern is supposed to be for. At A the joint-line is drawn from the tool (Fig. 141), and then the toe-line made as recommended on p. 176. The heel-line BC is made at a suitable angle to the pitch-line BA. BC is made of a length that represents the heel measurement, with the necessary allowances for the counter, etc. CD is drawn at an angle equal to that demanded for the kind of foot and represented by the angle Abc; so that the angles Abc and Bcd are equal. When this is the case the line CD is made equal to the heel-measure. The throat of the tongue should be easy in curvature. The coachman or jockey has a top that is not shown in the illustration. It is made from 5 to 53/4 in. in depth and 1 in. higher than the leg to allow for turning over. It must be wide enough to allow for seam, and going over the leg so as not to cause the latter to wrinkle. The shape of the tongue is made fancy for the jockey top. Regulation.
By way of a variety, and to show another way of cutting long work, the system, for this kind described, will be based upon the one given for short work, viz. system No. 3, p. 133. The distance of the front of the boot from the line that passes through the throat point should be less than the half-inch allowance for short work. This is owing to the forward position of the top of the leg of the foot, the substance of the leather, and its closed nature down the front. A forme is used for fitting the last (it should be remarked also that the last from which this forme is produced should be previously "fitted up " to the heel-measure of the foot in its right position) as in the method on p. 133. After the forme has been outlined and the base-line drawn (CD, Fig. 158), two upright lines are drawn at the extremity of the toe, and counter of the forme. The line CD is divided into four parts, and A is the position of the line AB. The calf is marked, and the height of the top (which in this regulation boot is 15 to 16 in. at the back and from 16 to 17 in. at the front) and the heel-measure, etc., arranged. F is distanced from E the same as the length from O to X. Then XF is the same as the heel-measure. If the boot is intended to bellows or fold, then allowance should be made for it - some two or more inches.
It should be noted that the idea of making the leg of a long boot the same as the heel, so as to allow the heel to pass, is usually all that is considered sufficient, whereas the height of the foot at the throat, from the ground, affects the passage of the foot in the boot. By making the line CD in Fig. 157 at an angle to the line CB, as CB is to AB, the clearance for the kind of foot will be provided for. In a low, flat foot the entrance to the foot is harder approached than the higher or arched foot. So that in the former case the width of leg is required farther down than in the latter case. The method of fixing F in Fig. 158 also provides for this. It may be applied in other long work.