This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.
The cutting of long-work patterns is supposed to be a special branch of pattern cutting requiring special skill. There is not so much variation in the style and shapes of long work as in short work, and when the initial difficulties are overcome, the rest is not so difficult as it would appear to the uninitiated on first inspection. The modes of cutting the various kinds of long boots may be illustrated by describing the Field, Butcher, Coachman's, Regulation, Wellington, and Dress Wellington. The bespoke houses are not so particular in the cutting of the pattern as would be deemed necessary for the factory, where they may be made machine-sewn or welted. In the former case the closer practically shapes the upper. The mistake made by those who have only cut short work, when cutting long work for the first time, is to neglect to provide for the passage of the heel portion of the foot into the made-up boot. Then the opposite extreme is resorted to, and the boot fails to fit in the heel, causing a sloppiness during the wear. Attention in cutting this class of work should be given to the throat, so that it may not be too sharp, and out of its correct position in relation to the last.
* It is advisable to use the term "draft" to apply only to the property of the lasted boot, and to use the term " spring "to describe the principle here alluded to.