This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.
Care should be taken in producing a standard not to raise the toe of the pattern above the "spring": of the last, else when work, such as calf-patent, be made therefrom it will be difficult, if not impossible, to get the upper clearly lasted at the feather. If the standard be true, any allowances for spring, etc., for economical or drafting purposes, may be made upon a proper basis, enabling uniform results to be obtained under similar circumstances. Uppers that are "too dead " in the toe are difficult to last in the waist, being tight and required to be "nicked,"while those "too springy" have the forepart too full .with a redundance of "pleats" and" wrinkles." The standard should be of correct length, and as perfect in its fitting properties as possible, because the whole set of patterns will depend upon the primary standard having its correct relations. Differences in length and lasting-over allowances must be made for different classes of manufacture. The allowances for turn-shoe work are the least, and hand-sewn, machine-welted, machine-sewn, riveted, etc., require various amounts suitable to the demands in making. A standard cut for a last to be" fitted up " requires, not only width-increases, but also additional length to allow for the extra fitting.
The curves of the made-up or completed boot must not be imitated in the pattern. Curves on a flat surface look different when bent to the last or foot. Sharp curves become sharper, the throat and back requiring special care. The flattest, plainest-looking standards will often produce the smartest-looking and best-fitting boot. The waist of the pattern should not be scooped or hollowed out too much, as the upper should not be pulled transversely across the instep to such an extent as to spoil the draft put in the boot by hoisting and well-considered pulls of the previous stages. Separate patterns and sets should be used for heavy and light work, both because of the additional lasting-over allowances, and for the differences in the substances and "give" of the upper material. The toe of standards for fabrics should not be "sprung" as much as for leather, but should fit the last exactly.
Shoe Standards require several principles (not so vital in the construction of a boot standard) being observed. The quarters of a shoe have to be arranged so that when on the foot they will grip well at the sides under the ankle, and also fit the heel snugly, to prevent the "up and down" motion often experienced with badly designed shoes. The first important feature, to ensure a correct fit, after the selecting of a properly constructed shoe last, is that the shape of the back shall correspond to that of the foot. It must not be hooked, as shown in Fig. 118, C, else it would cut the foot when worn; or more likely the seam would give way during the process of making. The correct shape of the back of the shoe is shown by B, in the same illustration, while A shows the reverse of C, it being the usual kind of shoe produced by cutting down a boot standard, or by making upon a boot last.
The correct shoe should have a tendency for the quarters * to come together when made, and should have the appearance of Fig. 119. The waist of a shoe pattern should not be hollowed or scooped out, as any strain caused transversely at this point in lasting would tend to make the quarters gape, and would defeat the primary point to be observed in cutting a shoe pattern.
* The edge of the quarter must not be confounded with the quarter.