This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.

After the initial or standard pattern has been produced, a set or series of patterns have to be made. Every pattern in the set must reproduce the features of the standard, and in measurement be adaptable to the lasts or scale of measures for which the set is intended. The method selected to do this should be simple, yet adaptable to the various needs of the trade. In scaling or grading, the various parts of the standard such as vamps, etc., the difference between the length-line of the last and the distance round the last should be fully understood. The length of the last, on the size-stick plan, is measured by taking the shortest distance through the last, and in grading parts the ratio of the part to the original or standard last should be strictly maintained. If an imaginary cut be made through the last, then the relation of the proportion to the length of the last, or the distance round, may be remembered by noting that parts measured in their entirety on this imaginary axial line must be proportioned to the length of the last. Parts that start on the axial line, but do not continue throughout their length, should be ratioed to the length of the standard pattern, which represents the distance round the last. This is an important point to study if the desire be to make the shoes or boots made from the patterns graded, like the original or standard boot cut from the standard pattern. The diagram, Fig. 148, will assist the understanding of this point. The line AB is the length-line of the last, and therefore from what has been said it follows that the vamp-height or depth CD, and the golosh depth EF, would be regulated by the proportion it is of the line AB. The vamp-wing V would, on the other hand, be ratioed not by the length-line AB, but by the distance round the last from A to B, corresponding to the length of the standard pattern without the lasting over allowance. To put the parts affected in tabular form, it would be* If men's work, mark 4/9 in each side of the gusset central line, t Seven-ninths of an inch over one-fifth of the instep girth is recommended.

Proportioned by the Last Proportioned by the Standard Length. Length.

Vamp depths. Wing lengths (vamp and cap).

Toe-cap depths. Stiffeners (lengths).

Stiffeners (depths). Back goloshes (lengths).

Back goloshes (depths). Shoe openings. Shoe heights at back.

The great obstacle to regular gradation in the upper patterns is the irregular last-measurements in use in many-factories. The breaks between some of the sizes already alluded to, require the calculation of the cutter. For instance, if the grading of the heel girth according to one of these irregular scales of measurements be attempted, modifications in grade of | of an inch between the size 5 men's and the same size in youths', would be 1/4 in. The grade would then be 3/16 as far as the size 2, it being less at this break.

There are many methods in use in the trade; many of them do not give correct results, while others are so empirical that they depend entirely upon the user for any apparent results obtained. Before examining some of them, it will be well to understand what grade should be selected for the various parts of the pattern. Suppose the lasts on a small range of sizes increase 1/4 of an inch between the joint and instep girths, and that the tread or bottom width increases 1/12 and the waist 1/16, then to obtain the grade for the upper portion of the pattern it should be arranged as follows:Joint. Instep.

Total grade of last at............ in. ... 1/4in.

Total grade of sole at............1/12 „ ... 1/16 „

Increase to upper portion .........2/12 „ ... 3/16 „

Increase to the pattern ......... 1/12 „ ... 3/32

With half a size to the heel girth and 1/9 to the ankle, and 1/8 to the top of the leg. For other dimensions proceed in like manner.

Joint. | Instep. | |||||

Total grade of last at ... | • • • | • • • | • • • | 1/4 in. | t • • | in. |

Total grade of sole at ... | • • • | • • • | • • • | 1 1/12 " » | • • • | 1/16 » |

Increase to upper portion | • • • | • • t | • • • | 2 T2 » | • • • | 3 16 » |

Increase to the pattern | • • • | • • . | • • • | 1 1/12 " | • • • | 3 32 » |

The Comparative System of grading is useful in supplying patterns to complete those already in existence that have some part or other missing. It is also adaptable to obtain With half a size to the heel girth and 1/9 to the ankle, and 1/8 to the top of the leg. For other dimensions proceed in like manner.

The Comparative System of grading is useful in supplying patterns to complete those already in existence that have some part or other missing. It is also adaptable to obtain a set of patterns to suit the many variations of lasts from a standard scale of measurements that are found in some establishments. It is a system suitable for scaling children's patterns if used in conjunction with some such system as that illustrated in Fig. 146 or 147 ; it is a very good method of grading patterns, but is usually discarded in favour of some other system, owing to the difficulty experienced in obtaining two patterns exactly alike in general character.

Continue to: