Take a forme or surface-area pattern of the shoe last it is desired to make a standard for, and lay it on a sheet of suitable paper above a horizontal line, AB, Fig. 120, - the seat of the forme being distanced from the line AB equal to the height of heel the last will carry (refer Fig. 116). Trace the outline of the forme. To fix the height of the back of the shoe will be the next step. There are several rules for determining this amount. A good rule is first to fix the stiffening, or counter height, which may be done either by taking a proportion of the length of the last,* or by using a ratio to the instep-girth. The latter rule has advantages to recommend it. One-fifth of the entire instep-measurement may be used and located from the corner of the forme, as C, Fig. 120. The height of the back above C for this ratio will be 7/9 in. This will give D. Join DT. From T measure a distance along TD, 1/3 in. less than TS, so as to ensure the "draft" or tension at the top of the shoe in its relation to the bottom edge (see X, Fig. 120). From X, along the line DT, mark, for size 4 adult, 42/9 in and obtain E. Through E, at right angles to DT, draw EK. From K to 0 make a suitable curve, and from 0 to X another curve, keeping it as straight as possible consistent with the style required. The line of the front of the shoe that passes from K to V should be nearly straight, as shown in Fig. 120. To complete, add lasting-over allowance, and cut out.

Fig. 120.

Fig. 120.

* One-fifth of the last length is the basis of this rule, t If a lower shoe is desired, use 41/2 in.