The box is preferably made from hard wood and put together with screws. It consists of three separate portions - top, middle, and bottom; the inside measurement when put together being 51/2" x 12" x 6". The bottom is made with a groove running round to snugly fit the middle, and on the four sides of the middle section are screwed four pieces of wood to hold the top firmly in position (see Fig. 43). The whole of the inside of the box should be as smooth as possible.

To Take The Mould

The box and foot are well greased and three pieces of greased cork, about an inch in thickness, are placed in position on the bottom to catch the heel and tread of the foot that is to be taken (A, A, A, Fig. 43). The middle section is placed on the bottom, and the foot put in the position that it is desired to mould. If an upright pose is wanted the front of the leg should be vertical with the ground, and the weight may be relieved from pressing on the corks - thus spoiling the plantar impression - by allowing the person who is operated upon to be seated.

Fig. 43

Fig. 43.

Mix the plaster to the thickness of cream, and pour into the box to the level of the edge of the foot. As it sets, build it well under the arch of the waist on the inside of the foot, rounding the top as smoothly as possible (Fig. 44). When the plaster has set - about ten or fifteen minutes - remove the foot and allow the section of the mould thus taken to harden. When this is accomplished, the whole of the surfaces that will come in contact with the wet plaster to be used in the next operation, together with the foot and the top section of the box, must be greased. Put the top on the box, and place the foot in position on the hardened greased plaster, and mix some plaster slightly thicker than the first mixing and pour it over the front of the foot, making as straight an edge on either side of the ankle as possible. When this second portion of the mould is set and hardened, any irregularities that may exist should be removed and the edges of the plaster well greased, to prevent the third and last section of the mould adhering. This done, and the foot re-greased and placed back in the box with the sections of the mould completed, some more plaster should be mixed and poured in the back of the box and allowed to set.

Fig. 44

Fig. 44.

To make the cast, the mould is greased well on the inside, and some plaster is mixed, rather thin, and poured into the space in the mould that was originally occupied by the foot, and when set the mould removed, and, if carefully done, an exact counterpart of the foot will be obtained.

The Foot may be measured in three ways: first, by extending it on the leg corresponding to the position of rest A (Fig. 45), when the line from the knee to the toes will be one quarter of the whole body; secondly, by measuring it as a shoemaker does, with a size-stick B (Fig. 45); and, thirdly, by putting it in the position illustrated by C, and comparing it with the height of the body.

Fig. 45

Fig. 45.

Fig 46 Types Of Soles Of Feet

Fig 46 Types Of Soles Of Feet.

The heel-measure in a foot will largely determine the kind of foot, and the angle made with the ground by the measuring-tape, if recorded, will afford a means of comparing the principal characteristics, such as the height of ankle, and the position of the leg in relation to the foot as measured from an imaginary line at the back of the foot. The line AB (Fig. 39) makes an angle of 35° with the line CD. It should be noted that the proportions of the lines Oe Of index the height of ankle and the position of the leg, and that as they approach each other in equality so the foot is more arched. In an arched foot with high instep and ankle the parallelogram Oefb becomes a square. The angles of the heel-line in the illustrations of the types of the various feet are -

X

Y

z

Fig. 39.

• »•

• • •

35°

• • •

• * •

42°

• • •

• • «

39°

n 40

• • •

• «•

45°

• • •

• • •

38°

• ..

• • •

42°

„ 41

• • •

• . •

47°

• • •

• •«

43°

...

42°

„ 42

• • •

• • ■.

46°

• • •

• • •

38°

• • •

• • *

55°

In Fig. 46 is illustrated the types of the soles of feet.