The person is usually seated, and after the length has been taken by the size-stick without * the weight of the body being upon the foot, it is placed upon the ground as in Fig. 51. Or, better still, the draft is first taken, and then the toes raised without moving the heel, as shown in the illustration. This will allow the positions or locations to be marked. The joint is next measured with a tape, snugly passing round the foot. To secure the position on the instep for taking the girth the finger should be used to find a slight bony prominence on the inner side of the foot; the tape passing over this and under the hollow of the foot. The heel-girth must be carefully taken, and it is advisable to take it when the foot is in a corresponding position to that which it will occupy when in the boot or shoe with the heel on. This may be accomplished by lowering the toes, and raising the heel to the required height, and then measuring the heel-girth. For high-heeled work this is an important matter, it being essential to the comfort of the wearer, and to prevent the foot going forward in the boot.

* The length of the foot with the weight of the body is shown by the draft-plan.

Fig 51

Fig 51.

Allowances to be made to the measures taken, or whilst taking, in addition to those previously named, are: (a) Length extras, to allow for the elongation of the foot when the weight of the body is thrown on it; to protect the toes from coming in contact with loose objects; and to allow for the bend or curve of the leather at the toe. Length-increases are rendered necessary, too, when the width of the shoe is not as full as the foot at the joint, so allowing for the longitudinal contraction caused by the spreading of the shoe, (b) Girth increases and decreases, according to the substance and "give"' of the upper and sole, the development of the foot, whether mature or growing.

The following table will show the average length -allowances over the length-measure, taken by the size-stick, without the weight of the body thereon :Men's

Youths' } 3 sizes longer for last.'

Women's } 21/2 sizes longer for last.

Boys

Children's, 2 sizes longer for last.

If the length be measured with the weight of the body borne upon the foot, as in taking a draft, the allowance given above will be reduced by Men's ... ... 3/8 inch.

Women's ... ... 3/9 „

Children's ... ... 1/4 „

The girth increases and decreases are given below 1/8 in. less on joint-girth.

Men's and women's ... ... . 7

1/4 in. less on instep-girth.

Youths,' boys', and children's... {1/8 larger joint-girth

1/8 in. larger on instep-girth.

These deductions in the adult measures are for soft yielding uppers, and are made to allow for the stretch of leather in wear. The increases in the children's goods are for the usual strong boots that are worn ; but if the goods are light and stretchy, they would be made up to measure. If the uppers are very stout, no deduction should be made on the adults' and a greater addition should be made for the juvenile requirements. Bony feet are usually made fully up to measure, and feet that are fleshy may be made under the measurement, according to the substance of the boot to be made.

Other Methods of taking Foot-Measurements are sometimes resorted to. One method is to have two tapes fastened together at right angles, as Fig. 52, using one tape to locate or register the distance from the toe end, and the other to take the girth-measurements. This necessitates an addition when measuring the last, and is more liable to error than the method of recording the positions on the draft-plan previously described. Another method is to register the position-distances from the heel by placing the one end of the tape at the point to be measured, and the other end is carried round the heel to a point opposite the first used end of the tape. A girth-measure is next taken, and the measure round the foot and girth recorded. In practice, this is not a reliable method, because it is dependent upon the thickness or width of the foot and last being absolutely the same, whereas the last at the seat is usually wider, thus displacing the position-measure.

Fig 52

Fig 52.

The American System of taking the measurements is illustrated in Fig. 53, where A is the ball, B the half-ball, C the waist, D the instep, E the long-heel, F the heel, and G the ankle measurements respectively. The long-heel measurement is a commendable point, and one that may-be adapted with considerable advantage. The waist-measure enables the last to be selected, or made, to prevent the wrinkles so common behind the ball of the great toe in work made without taking this measurement.

Fig 53

Fig. 53.

These distances are located on an approved plan. They are all measured by the size-stick from the heel in the same manner as the length of the foot is measured. One-half of the length of the foot is taken, and from the bend at the back of the leg above the heel at the ankle; this is measured to the top of the instep, thus locating, longitudinally, the instep position on the foot, that can be measured in a similar way on the last. Three-quarters of the foot's length * measured in like manner from the heel locates the position of the ball-measure. The length of the foot up the leg gives a good position for measuring the leg-girth.