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The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear | by F. Y. Golding



The aim of the Author in writing this treatise has been to produce a text-book useful to students attending technological classes, so that they may be enabled to supplement their knowledge gained in the class-room, and thus assist the instructor to cover a larger field than is possible under ordinary circumstances. It will also serve, it is hoped, as a handbook to some instructors by suggesting matter for teaching and demonstration in their classes.

TitleThe Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear
AuthorF. Y. Golding
PublisherChapman & Hall
Year1902
Copyright1902, Chapman & Hall
AmazonThe Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes
The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes

By F. Y. Golding, Principal Of The City And Guilds Of London Institute's Leather Trades School

With Over Two Hundred Illustrations

-Preface
The aim of the Author in writing this treatise has been to produce a text-book useful to students attending technological classes, so that they may be enabled to supplement their knowledge gained in t...
-Chapter I. The Construction And Composition Of The Foot
Historic Introduction It is difficult to precisely ascertain the period when foot-gear was first worn. Ancient writings bear evidence that some protection or covering was in use, and it is certain ...
-Division Of The Subject
The Lower Limbs occupy the lower half of the figure, and are the means of support and locomotion. The proportion they occupy relatively to the whole figure will be seen by reference to Fig. 4. They ar...
-Uses Of Bones And Their Properties
The bones support the soft or fleshy parts of the limbs, and form a framework that gives them shape. They form, in some cases, levers upon which the muscles act, and give origin to the various motions...
-Composition Of Bone
The animal or organic materials that compose bone are about one-third of the bulk, the remainder being made up of inorganic constituents or earthy salts. The animal substances impart flexibility, and ...
-Joints
The surfaces of the bones that meet at joints are tipped with gristle, or a layer of cartilage fixed firmly to the bone. Between the cartilages is found a synovial membrane. This is a kind of bag cont...
-Arches Of The Foot
The bones of the foot form two arches, one longitudinal and the other transverse. The longitudinal arch extends from the os calcis behind to the heads of the metatarsal bones in the front, being situa...
-Groups In The Legs
In the legs there are groups of muscles that are opposed to each other in their action, and it is the balancing of these actions upon the foot that enable standing and walking to be performed. In infa...
-The Muscles Of The Foot
The foot owes its peculiarities of form to its bony structure; the muscles round off the angular structure. They are usually but little developed, and, being situated in masses, it is difficult to iso...
-The Mechanics Of The Foot
The active agents in the mechanism of the foot are the muscles, and the passive the bones, ligaments, joints, etc. The bones are the levers, and the muscles the power. Levers are of three kinds, the c...
-Chapter II. Characteristics, Contours, Types Of Feet, Etc
Variety In Feet Structurally all feet are alike, but in form and measurement there exists great diversity. From three fundamental types of man, there are some seventy-two distinct races, each race ...
-Average Feet Proportions
At birth the average height is 193 in. male, and 189 in. female. The average mature statures are 5 ft 9 in. male, and 5 ft. 5 in. female. If the total stature be represented by 67, then the various pa...
-Foot Characteristics At Different Periods
In infancy the foot is broad at the toes, the line of the inner margin of the feet going outwards from the middle line of the foot. The toes lie forward in the direction of their length, and the heel ...
-Types Of Feet
The many sorts of feet that are met with are due to a number of causes, such as habits, climate, occupation, locality, etc., and it is the combination of these in different degrees that give so many d...
-Classification According To Temperaments
There are three primary forms of temperament - motive, vital, and mental - these names being applied according to the predominant characteristics of physical constitution, vitality, or mentality respe...
-National Difference
The feet of the Scotch are large, flat, and bony. They are somewhat broad toed. The Irish feet are short and chubby. The English have broad feet at the instep and joints, with an inclination to taperi...
-Taking Mould In Sections
The box is preferably made from hard wood and put together with screws. It consists of three separate portions - top, middle, and bottom; the inside measurement when put together being 51/2 x 12 x 6...
-Chapter III. Measuring The Foot: Drafts, Impressions, Apparatus, And Measurements
Measurements of the foot are taken for two purposes, either to make boots and shoes to the order of a customer who requires some individual peculiarity to be suited; or for ascertaining data for study...
-Measuring The Foot: Drafts, Impressions, Apparatus, And Measurements. Continued
* Paper scales printed on good Manilla paper are desirable, and, being cheap, may be renewed often. Feet that may be alike in length and girth are different in many other respects. Some are arched,...
-The Operation Of Measuring
The person is usually seated, and after the length has been taken by the size-stick without * the weight of the body being upon the foot, it is placed upon the ground as in Fig. 51. Or, better still, ...
-Scott's Podameter
Scott's Podameter consists of a box, one end of which is higher than the other, so that the foot when being measured may be in the same position as it would occupy in the illustration, Fig. 51. At the...
-Ellis's Pedistat
Ellis's Pedistat consists of a platform, A (Fig. 55), twelve inches long and four wide. At one end of this is a block, against which the heel is placed. Outside the borders of the platform are two gro...
-Plans and Elevations
Plans and Elevations of the foot and leg are sometimes taken, and this in the case of orthopoedic work is necessary. It may be taken in several ways, but the simplest plan is to take two hinged boards...
-Classed Standard Measures
The average well-formed foot could be classed, and a table prepared giving the measurements of the various classes. If standard feet measurements were adopted, and the allowances for sub-stances of ma...
-Classed Standard Measures. Continued
The Quarter-inch System is supposed to be based upon the rule that a difference of a quarter of an inch increase or decrease should be made between size and size and fitting and fitting, both for inst...
-Irregular Gradations
To maintain simplicity of measurement notation, and to obviate the making of two girths of the same dimensions, several methods are adopted that may be termed irregular. One of these systems has a dif...
-Heel-Measures
There are two measurements that are usually termed heel-measures - one the distance round the foot as usually taken, and the other the long-heel, a measure especially useful in lasts. The latter is t...
-French Standard Measurements
The standard for men's size 41 (Paris points), or 27 1/2 centimetres, is Joints ............ 22 centimetres. Instep ... ... ... ... 23/1/2. Heel ... ... ... ... 321/2 ,,. Ankle ............ 2...
-German Measurements
The measures given below are for three fitting. Length (Paris points). Length (centimetres). Joint. Instep. Heel. Ankle. ...
-Chapter IV. Sole-Shapes - Last Sections - Last Making And Last Fitting
The Production of Sole-Shapes is a very important operation in the making of boots and shoes. It requires a knowledge of the construction and proportion of the foot, besides a considerable degree of a...
-Methods Of Constructing Sole-Shapes
There are several well-known methods of constructing a sole-shape, and they are based upon the theories that have been advocated from time to time as to the best form of shoe. Some of these ideas, adv...
-Grading Other Sizes And Fittings Of Sole-Shapes
Grading other Sizes and Fittings of sole-shapes may be done in one or two systems, and by machine. The shifting systems for a short range of sizes or fittings are very simple, but in the hands of an i...
-Cote Grading Machine
Cote Grading Machine is called by the inventor the Improved Pantograph, and is an improvement that enables patterns to be produced which have not the defect of a proportional width-grading to the le...
-Structure Of Wood
The woods used for last-making grow from the outside - that is to say, the new wood is formed between the old wood and the bark. The newly produced wood is softer than the older wood, and in drying sh...
-Sorting Into Pairs
From what has been said respecting the structure of wood it will be seen that wood can be chosen to make lasts so that the greater shrinkage may be either in the last's height or width. This is an imp...
-Last-Making Machinery
The machines for turning lasts are chiefly of two kinds - one, the copying lathe, that copies from a pattern last a similar sized one; and the other sort are accurately constructed machines, that enab...
-Last-Making Machinery. Continued
Boot Lasts are made much thicker at the sides than other lasts, and are thus made to accommodate the extra thickness required for ankle bones. As they are usually required for higher heels than shoes,...
-General Observations On Lasts
Great care should be exercised, in getting out the original or standard model that plenty of room is given in the correct place and hat he shape should conform to the requirements of the foot for the ...
-Chapter V. Pattern-Making And Grading
The art of pattern-cutting requires much skill, sound judgment, anticipating thought, a knowledge of the rules and principles of shoemaking, and, above all, a cultivated style and natural taste. The s...
-Forme-Cutting By Soule's System
This is the simplest and most mechanical method of cutting a forme. It was first published in 1884. Since then it has been improved in detail, and the illustration (Fig. 103) will show the principal p...
-Description Of The Method
Take the last - by preference a left-foot one - and first mark on the front the position of measurement of toes, joint, and instep (A, B, C, Fig. 104). Lay the last with the toe to the left hand upon ...
-Forme And Profile
Before examining some of the methods used for producing a standard, or primary pattern, the difference between the covering of a last, or surface-area, and a profile, or section, should be understood....
-Constructing A Standard From A Forme
This may be done by means of several systems. Some of these are based upon average relations without giving directly the variations needed for the kind of pattern best adapted to the particular type o...
-Constructing a Standard from a Forme: System No. 2
This is the same in construction as the preceding, only instead of using a forme, the last is directly applied. Before the last is used it is well to mark thereon the positions for taking the various ...
-Constructing a Standard from a Forme: System No. 3
This method is based upon the longitudinal location of the ankle in relation to the foot's length, and this proportion also gives the ankle bone height from the margin of the foot. In constructio...
-Constructing a Standard from a Forme: System No. 4
This method is the outcome of the fact that, when the heel is raised the curve at the back crosses a fixed upright line at a lower distance from the bottom than when not raised. This rule, that the lo...
-Constructing a Standard from a Forme: System No. 5
This is a quick, and in the hands of an experienced person, a reliable method of producing a standard direct from the last without having to previously make a forme. It is to be especially recommended...
-Observations On Standard Cutting
Care should be taken in producing a standard not to raise the toe of the pattern above the spring: of the last, else when work, such as calf-patent, be made therefrom it will be difficult, if not im...
-System No. 1
Take a forme or surface-area pattern of the shoe last it is desired to make a standard for, and lay it on a sheet of suitable paper above a horizontal line, AB, Fig. 120, - the seat of the forme being...
-System No. 2
A forme may be used for this method, or the measurements taken direct from the last. Fig. 121 is an illustration of a man's shoe. Draw a base-line, and provide for the height of the heel in the usual ...
-Vamps
It is difficult to give any single rule of proportion fixing the height of a vamp, owing to the differences that have to be made between boots and shoes, high and low heeled work, and for accommodatin...
-How To Spring Vamps
There are two methods of performing this - one being to elevate the toe of the vamp the required amount above the toe of the standard, and then complete the cutting in the usual way, shown in Fig. 126...
-Standard Drafting
Drafting, or draughting, is rendered necessary in the making of boots and shoes, owing to the material employed in their construction, and the cut of the upper. Leather is a flat substance, possessing...
-Button Boots
The standards for this shape of boot should be fuller in measurement at the instep, heel, ankle, and leg, than those cut for lace or elastic-side work. For stout material this allowance must be greate...
-Designing the Button-piece
After fixing the height or depth of the vamp required as A, Fig. 128, divide the joint-width Aw into three equal parts, and at the division one-third Am, from A mark n. Divide the heel-measure line cB...
-Graduating Scollops (circular)
Fig. 131, abed, shows the button-piece taken from Fig. 128. The dotted line will show the amount of spring. The scollops may be prepared in a way similar to Fig. 132. The smallest scollop is made b...
-Side Lace
The opening on the inside of a side-lace pattern should be situated about one inch from the sole edge, and should incline forward to allow the foot to be easily removed and replaced. The side lace, al...
-Facings
Facings on the outside of the quarter may either be stitched or cut from a thin piece of leather. The former may be either plain or fancy, and Fig. 135 shows a design for facing-marker. The marker (Fi...
-Elastic Sides
It was formerly considered that the cutting of an elastic-side pattern was an easy task, requiring little skill; but it is a pattern that well pays careful attention. The amount of the elasticity of t...
-Derbies
The pattern for this style is not difficult to design, the principal points to be observed being the selection of the correct height of vamp, the width of the tab or latchet, and the shape of the corn...
-Seams, Underlays, and Lasting Allowances
Seams. Light top-band seams ............... 1/32 inch. Glaces, gloves, kid, etc................ ,1/16 Levants, stouter kids, calf, etc............. 1/12 Kips, stout levants...
-Bespoke Patterns
The cutting of patterns for bespoke work is usually empirically performed, and making a conformation to given measurements often is the only feature considered. There is no portion of pattern-making t...
-Pattern Constructor
This tool is useful to aid the designing of a bespoke pattern, especially when the last from which the upper will be made cannot be obtained. Being based upon average, requirements, it may also be use...
-Designing An Elastic-Side Pattern
The first description will be for a ladies' size 4 pattern and for a high heel, and is illustrated in Fig. 146. The line Js is two-thirds (measured from s) of the length of a 4's last; and Ja is the r...
-Shoes
A shoe may be produced upon this plan by making S the height required,! and connecting this with T, as shown in the dotted line. P is 7/9 of an inch below H. A line passing from P to D gives, where it...
-Shoe Grading
After the initial or standard pattern has been produced, a set or series of patterns have to be made. Every pattern in the set must reproduce the features of the standard, and in measurement be adapta...
-Shoe Grading. Continued
Modus operandi After the two standards, quarters, vamps, or other parts have been obtained, lay them on a sheet of suitable paper to make a stencil - marking the largest pattern first. After the la...
-The Geometrical System
The Geometrical System is practised under several names - such as the Proportional, Radial, Parallel Rule, Tool, Set-Square, Sector, Proportional-Compass, etc. - but in principle is the same. The same...
-The Adapted System
The adapted System is founded upon the geometrical method, but is adapted to the various trade measurements used, while it retains the regularity of appearance, and conforms to the lasts. If it be tho...
-Long Work
The cutting of long-work patterns is supposed to be a special branch of pattern cutting requiring special skill. There is not so much variation in the style and shapes of long work as in short work, a...
-Elcho, Field, or Sportsman's
One method to cut the pattern for this style of boot is to draw a line, and at one end erect a perpendicular. Up this the height of heel desired is marked. The counter-height (taken from such a scale ...
-Sewrounds
The cutting of patterns for this mode of making requires also a special attention not so demandable in short work. The fact of a round being made inside out, and that after the shoe is sewn, turned...
-Chapter VI. Clicking, Or Cutting Upper Leathers
The cutting of upper leathers is an important branch of the manufacture of boots and shoes. It requires a knowledge of the materials to be cut, and the keen judgment to dispose of the various parts of...
-Anatomical Construction Of The Skin
When the skin leaves the back of the animal it mainly consists of four layers : the hair or wool; the epidermis, or outside skin; the true skin, or corium; and portions of the adipose of the slaughter...
-Modes Of Preparation
The different ways of converting the pelt into leather may be generalized as tanning, tawing, and mineral tanned, or chroming. The former depends upon the astringent property of the bark and other veg...
-Selection Of Skins
The size, shape, quality, and substance of the skin determines its value for a specific purpose. The position or absence of flaws, fleshcuts, and stretchiness also influence the selection. Square skin...
-Systems Of Placing The Patterns
In cutting up materials for economy, it is a great advantage to adopt some system of placing the patterns. The best system to use depends upon the class of work and the variety of qualities to be prod...
-Clicking Principles
Skins should be sorted to size, quality, and substance. The largest and stoutest are usually reserved for the largest sizes. Some advocate that the largest skins should be cut into the smallest sizes ...
-Stretchiness And Tightness
When a skin is pulled, the line or direction in which it gives or stretches most is technically known as the line of stretch. This property varies in the several kinds of skins, and also in the same...
-Disposition Of Dualities
The parts of a boot or shoe subjected to the greatest strain, either in making or wearing, should be appropriated the best portions of the skin, and the better the judgment of the cutter, the nearer t...
-Seam-To-Toe
To obtain the best wear, the fronts should be cut tight across, from front seam to feather, and when joined under the gusset the back should be tight-to-toe to prevent the back-seam going awry in la...
-Bespoke Cutting
For best bespoke, high prices are obtained, and quality is a great consideration. Economic cutting would therefore be a secondary consideration, fitness and suitability for the purpose intended being ...
-Glove Kid
For glove kids the skin of the lamb is chiefly used. The best are of French production. They are tawed, which is done as follows: The skins are soaked, then limed, and unhaired by a blunt knife on the...
-Russia Leather
Real Russia leather is very strong, pliant, and durable, and is distinguished by its peculiar odour. It is tanned with bark from the willow, poplar, or larch, and the scent is given with birch-bark oi...
-Alligators
The skins of the young ones are often used for boots and shoes ; but, owing to the fact that the bellies and flanks only are suitable for this purpose, it makes a very dear cutting leather. * This ...
-Sorting Qualities
The cut work may be sorted afterwards, by separate men, into qualities, instead of the cutter being responsible for the selection. It is sometimes advisable in very large establishments, where a st...
-Machinery
For certain portions of the work, dies or knives may be used to advantage. Topbands, facings, inside and outside straps, tongues, etc., may be thus cut under a press. By giving a little consideration ...
-Costing
Calculating the cost of the various sections and qualities of the cut work requires a considerable experience and judgment. The mode often adopted of marking up a selected skin into the kind of patter...
-Example
To calculate area of triangle a, b, c, Fig. 183. Measure in inches * the length of the base, a, b. In this case it is 71 in. Then take the perpendicular height, c, d. In this case it is 2.8 in. The ru...
-Chapter VII. Upper Fitting And Machining Or Closing
The putting together of the various parts while stitching is termed fitting. These parts are, where possible, fitted as intended and designed by the pattern-cutter. The correct fitting together o...
-Skiving
When two pieces of leather have to be overlapped they must be suitably skived. The skive,* scarfs or bevel varies with the conditions of each case. The idea is that the two substances, when joined, sh...
-Description of "Amazeen" Machine
The new high-speed Amazeen leather-skiving machine is driven from a transmitter. The balance-wheel makes from 1200 to 1400 revolutions per minute. It will be seen by Fig. 187 that the main shaft of ...
-Ink
The edges of vamps, goloshes, quarters, etc., if not turned in, should be coloured the same as the face of the leather. If black, the ink should be jet black,* and of such a composition that it readil...
-Adhesives
The success of an adhesive used to unite two substances depends upon the manner of using quite as much as the pasty substance itself. Paste dries by evaporation, and therefore as little as possible sh...
-Modes Of Fitting
Although the -sequence of processes may differ in fitting, caused by the adoption or rejection of certain machines, the principles may be classified under two headings, flat and round fitting. ...
-Rubbing Seams
Whatever system is adopted, the closed seams should be well rubbed down so as to occupy as little space as possible, and also to present as little irregularity to the foot of the wearer. To this purpo...
-Treatment Of Edges
The edges of the various sections of the upper may be treated either(a) By leaving the lining and outside raw-edge, i.e. so that they are flush when stitched. (b) By turning in the lining to show a...
-Bagging Machines
The machines used for rubbing the seams out for bagged or stitched-on and turned-over edge work are known as bagging or beading machines. There are two types in general use, the Watson and the C...
-Women's Laced Boots
The sequence of processes of fitting' a woman's lace boot on the flat is modified to suit the class of work and the stitching and other machines used. When the processes are greatly subdivided, it sh...
-Women's Buttoned
The button boot may be fitted on two plans, either by practically completing the button-piece before attaching to the quarter, or by attaching it to the quarter before completing the button-piece. The...
-Men's Laced Boots
Men's work is fitted either on the flat, of which there are two modes of procedure - on the block, or by a combination of the flat and block methods. The following description of the operation will il...
-Men's Buttoned
Like other designs, this boot may be fitted in several ways. After skiving, inking, etc., the linings may be closed, backstrapped, topbands and button-lining stitched on, and stays for buttons past...
-Fitting Without Pasting
To enable the best results to be obtained when holding the work while stitching, certain modifications in the pattern should be made over those usually adopted. The shaded portions in Fig. 191, A, sho...
-Sewing Machines
There are many varieties of machines for stitching uppers. Some only make one row of plain stitching at an operation, while others will make two, three, or more lines of stitching simultaneously. Mach...
-Stitches
There are two types of stitches - the single-thread or chain-stitch, or the double-thread or lock-stitch. Fig. 192. With the former kind of stitch the thread* is deposited in the work with t...
-Formation Of Stitch
The chain-stitch is formed by inter-looping a single thread beneath the work by a looper. The action of this device may be by oscillations in a restricted arc, or by a continuous rotation. The ne...
-Needles
The action of a sewing-machine depends upon the loops that are thrown out by the needle. Needles for leather work have two grooves, rendered necessary to carry through the thread, owing to the tendenc...
-Feeds
Some arrangement must be provided to move along the work by given amounts in perfect regularity, thus determining the length of the stitch. This motion must be automatic, and not dependent upon the op...
-Tensions
The tensions or tautness placed upon the threads may be either upper or under. The upper tension is arranged by the thread passing between two discs known as tension discs (B, Fig. 212). The lower is ...
-Take-Ups
Where the amount of slack paid out through the eye of the needle is greater than the amount of the dip of the needle-bar, an independent take-up is required. Its function is to pull up the loop after ...
-Check-Springs
These are sometimes termed thread controllers. They act as safety-valves, and if they are too stiff or light the stitches slip, and if too weak the thread is troublesome to work. ...
-Threading Up
This can be readily understood by reference to Figs. 206 and 212, and thus needs no further comment. ...
-Direction Of Motion
The balance wheel should revolve away from the operator in Bradbury's No. 8 (Fig. 206) and in the Singer Left-hand Cylinder machines (Fig. 219). It should revolve toivards the user in Jones' improved ...
-Threads, Silks, Cottons, etc
Threads for upper stitching and other purposes should be composed of long fibres, free from kinks or knots. It should not be too loosely or too tightly twisted. The twist must be carefully selected ...
-Special Machines
These comprise a very large variety. In the flat-bed type there are machines that perform almost every kind and combination of stitch or stitches that can be desired. Various attachments are affixed, ...
-Sewing Machines, Benches, and Power-Driving
We shall be glad to give the names of Manufacturers all over the country whose Factories we have fitted up with Sewing Machines, Benches, and . . . Power-Driving. Arrangements complete. Plans and E...
-Sewing Machines, Benches, and Power-Driving. Part 2
Messrs. Chapman & Hall, Ltd., Publishers, 11, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. Mobbs & Lewis, Ltd,, Kettering. Makers of the British Treeing Machine And Easy-Exit Las...
-Sewing Machines, Benches, and Power-Driving. Part 3
Chapman & Hall, Limited, London. Leaf Brand Wood Lasts, Trees, & Fillers. Iron-Plated Lasts For Machine-Sewn and Welted Woik. Lasts for Hand-Sewn, Sew-Round, and Turn-Shoe Work. F...
-Books
New Edition of Dickens's Works. The Biographical Edition. In 18 Vols., Large Crown 8vo, Price 3s. 6d. each. This Edition will contain Biographical Introductions in each book, giving its hi...









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