No rules fully meet the requirements for satisfactory helps in spelling, as all rules have exceptions. Frequent reference to the dictionary and careful observation of words which occur in daily reading will help to give one confidence. . One should always associate the form of the written word with the meaning. The following will be found helpful, and should be carefully studied :

Words of one syllable ending in /, with a single vowel before it, have double / at the close ; as, pill, dell.

Words of one syllable ending in /, with a double vowel before it, have one / only at the close ; as, hail, rail.

Monosyllables ending in double / when compounded retain but one / each; as, skilful, fulfil.

Words of more than one syllable ending in / have but one / at the close; as, delight-fuc, faithful. But if the accent fall on the last syllable, they have a doublel; as, befall, recall, etc.

Derivations from words ending in / have one l only; as, equality from equal, dulness from dull; except they end in er or ly; as, mill, miller, full, fully.

Words ending in e drop the e before the termination able; as, love, lovable; except they end in ce or ge, when the e is retained; as in change, changeable.

The i and e often come together in a word, it will be found that in the majority of words i and e come together after an / or a c. After an l, i takes precedence-after a c, e takes precedence; as, believe, deceive. When in doubt over an i and e following a c or /, remember the word lice, which serves as a guide, the i following the /, the e the c.

Participles in ing from verbs ending in e, drop the final e; as, have, having, love, loving ; unless they come from verbs ending in double e, and then they retain both ; as, see, seeing, agree, agreeing. The word dye, however, is an exception, and retains e before ing-dyeing.

Adverbs ending in ly and nouns in ment retain the final e of the primitives ; as, brave, bravely; confine, confinement; except acknowledgment and judgment.

Monosyllables ending in a consonant, with a single vowel before it, double that consonant in derivatives ; as, sin, sinner.

Monosyllables ending in a consonant, with a double vowel before it, do not double the consonant in derivatives; as, troop, trooper.

Words of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel and accented on the final syllable, double that consonant in derivatives ; compel, compelled, appal, appalling.

Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form their plural by adding s, as key, keys; if y is preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by changing y into -ies; as, fly.

flies.

Compound words, whose primitives end in y, change y into i; as, ugly, ugliness.